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Between the middle of the eleventh century and the end of the twelfth century, a veritable revolution took place in biblical exegesis among the Rabbinic masters of northern France. During that time, a group of Rabbinic scholars began to formulate a new and innovative approach to reading and interpreting biblical texts according to a methodology that came to be called peshat , or “contextual exegesis.” This revolution paralleled, contributed to, and was influenced by a similar advance made in ad literam, or literal, reading methodology by contemporary Christian scholars, most of whom were associated with the cathedral school of St. Victor. Moreover, Jewish and Christian masters were themselves influenced by earlier and contemporary Moslem, Jewish, and Christian scholarship carried out in the Islamic world. See Avraham Grossman, “The School of Literal Exegesis in Northern France,” in Magne Saebo, ed., Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation. Volume I: From the Beginnings to the Middle Ages (until 1300). Part 2: The Middle Ages (Gottingen, 2000), pp. 321–71; Hava Lazarus-Yafeh, Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible. Criticism (Princeton, 1992); Theodore Pulcini, Exegesis as Polemical Discourse: Ibn Hazm on Jewish and Christian Scriptures (Atlanta, 1998). The French Rabbinic group included such illustrious figures as Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, or Rashi (1040–1105); his younger contemporary, Rabbi Joseph Qara (1050–1130); Rashi's grandson, Rabbi Samuel ben Meir, or Rashbam (1080–1160); Rashbam's student, Rabbi Eliezer of Beaugency (mid-twelfth century); and Rabbi Joseph ben Isaac Bekhor Shor (mid- to late-twelfth century), a disciple of Rashbam and Rashbam's younger brother, Rabbi Jacob Tam. Among the Christian scholars who flourished in the twelfth century were Hugh of St. Victor ; his disciple, Andrew; and Herbert of Bosham. See Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible. in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1952). While this article is concerned with Rabbinic exegesis, a brief detour to one of the fruits of Christian scholarship during the “Renaissance of the Twelfth Century” will serve well to highlight the achievements of Jewish scholarship in that same period.

in Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online
In: Hakol Kol Yaakov
In: The Multiple Meaning of Scripture
The Joel Roth Jubilee Volume
Hakol Kol Yaakov: The Joel Roth Jubilee Volume contains twenty articles dedicated to Rabbi Joel Roth, written by colleagues and students. Some are academic articles in the general area of Talmud and Rabbinics, while others are rabbinic responsa that treat an issue of contemporary Jewish law. In his career, Joel Roth has been known as a scholar and teacher of Talmud par excellence, and, without question, as the preeminent decisor of Jewish law for the Conservative movement of his generation. In the meticulous style and approach of the Talmud scholarship of his generation, Roth painstakingly and precisely assayed the vast array of rabbinic legal sources, and proceeded to apply these in pedagogy, in scholarship and particularly in the production of contemporary legal responsa. The articles in this volume reflect the unique and integrated voice and vision that Joel Roth has brought to the American Jewish community.

There is very little reported information on warm-up practices in showjumping horses. The objective was to quantify warm-up jumping patterns/duration in a competition (field) environment in showjumping horses. Ten mixed-breed elite showjumping horses were assessed at a three-day training session. Riders warmed-up as they would normally for an elite competition and jumped at least one round of a 15-fence (135-145 cm) course on each day. Fence type/height, number of jumping efforts and lead take-off/landing limbs during warm-up were recorded. Rider global-positioning-system and inertial-motion-sensors recorded speed, time spent in each pace/rein plus stride length and stride duration during warm-up and course. Heart rate (HR) was recorded when the horse was resting in its stable and for the duration of the ridden exercise. Appropriate paired statistical tests were used to compare variables between days, and between warm-up and the round(s). Mean warm-up duration, time in each pace and on each rein did not differ within rider between days, however, there were inter-rider differences (mean warm-up duration = 18 min; range = 12-27 min). Number of jumping efforts and fence type/height did not differ between days. During warm-up, there was no preference in canter lead when approaching fences. However, on departure there was a preferred canter lead, plus jump landing and leaving lead limb asymmetry (left canter lead predominating in all cases). Horses cantered slower, with a shorter stride length and a longer stride duration during warm-up compared to when jumping the round (speed – warm-up: 4.21±0.09 m/s; round: 5.53±0.15 m/s; stride length – warm-up: 2.59±0.06 m; round: 3.16±0.08 m; stride duration – warm-up: 0.62±0.02 s; round: 0.58±0.03 s). Mean resting HR significantly decreased on consecutive study days. Mean, peak and final HR during warm-up did not significantly change between days. Results provide novel information on warm-up patterns in a competition (field) environment for elite horses, and suggest that showjumping horses may be warmed-up asymmetrically.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology

The objective of this study was to evaluate head, neck and back kinematics during take-off in elite level horses jumping, and to compare these over an upright and parallel spread fence. Ten mixed-breed elite-level showjumping horses were opportunistically evaluated jumping the same 15-fence course (1.35 m) during a British Equestrian Federation World Class Performance three-day training session. Two fences were evaluated using high-speed motion-capture (250 Hz). Head, neck and back kinematics of the horse were determined at take-off, at vertical orientation of leading and trailing third metacarpus/tarsus and as the trailing hindlimb left the floor. Very consistent patterns between all horses over both upright and spread fences were observed in neck-trunk (NT) angle, lumbosacral (LS) angle, the angle of the thoracolumbar (TL) to horizontal and of LS to horizontal. Head-neck (HN), TL angle and distance to fence showed moderate variation between horses. There were no significant differences between fence-type in HN, NT, TL, LS angle or distance to the fence, but TL to the horizontal angle was greater over the spread for all stride phases. LS to the horizontal angle was greater over the upright when the leading forelimb was vertical at take-off and when the trailing hindlimb was vertical at take-off. These findings suggest that elite horses may use some similar strategies to achieve a successful jump. Further understanding regions which are most influenced by velocity, rider, and horse stability could enable us to modify jumping patterns for the performance and welfare of jumping horses.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology