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Author: Robert Black
Scholarship on pre-university education in Italy during the Middle Ages and Renaissance has been dominated by studies of individual towns or by general syntheses of Italy as a whole; in contrast, this work offers not only an archival study of a region but also attempts to discern crucial local variations on a comparative basis. It documents mass literacy in the city of Florence; the school curriculum in the individual Florentine subject towns, as well as in the city of Florence itself; the decline of church education and the rise of lay schools; the development of communal schools in Florentine Tuscany up to 1400; and teachers, schools and pupils in the city of Florence during the fifteenth century.
In: Interpretations of Renaissance Humanism
In: Humanism and Creativity in the Renaissance


This article introduces the World Trade Organization (WTO) rules on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and the European Union's policies and legislation that exemplify these rules. This forms the basis for examining primary Russian SPS legislation governing border controls and its relationship with legislative provisions on human, animal, and plant health and food safety. Specific Russsian primary federal laws (federal'nye zakony) covering veterinary medicine, plant health, food quality/safety, pesticides and agrochemicals, and technical regulations are compared with corresponding international conventions, norms, and standards and relevant legislation in the EU. Finally, general remarks are made about the Russian Federation's secondary legislation in the SPS area. Instances of non-compliance with international norms, found by the authors, may contribute to trade difficulties with other countries and likely will need to be addressed as part of Russia's negotiations to join the WTO and, also, to remove some of the difficulties in trade with the EU.

In: Review of Central and East European Law