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Robert Carter

Abstract

The paper presents an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf. The history of pearling in the region is reviewed, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century. Economic data from the 18th–20th centuries CE is analysed in detail, to de fine the economic course of the pearling industry during that time, and assess the impact on human settlement in the region. The archaeological data for pearl fishing are then examined, from the 6th millennium BCE onwards, and compared to the historical evidence. The results of archaeological survey in the Abu Dhabi islands region are then taken as a case study, and changes in settlement patterns are related to the historical trajectory of the pearling industry. It is observed that the regional economy became overwhelmingly dependent on the pearl trade in recent centuries, and was increasingly subject to the demands of the global market. Cette étude présente une analyse et une synthèse des données historiques et archéologiques sur la pêche des perles dans le Golfe arabo-persique. L'histoire de la pêche des perles dans la région est passée en revue, depuis les plus anciennes références connues qui remontent au milieu du 20e siècle. Les données économiques du 18e au 20e siècle sont analysées en détail pour dé finir l'évolution de l'industrie perlière pendant cette période et évaluer son incidence sur le peuplement de la région. Les données archéologiques sur la pêche des perles, examinées depuis le 6ème millénaire avant J.-C., ont été comparées aux données historiques. Les résultats des reconnaissances archéologiques dans les îles de la région d'Abu Dhabi sont alors présentées comme étude de cas et les modi fications de con figuration de l'habitat sont reliées à l'évolution historique de l'industrie perlière. On remarque que l'économie de cette région est devenue presque entièrement dépendante du commerce des perles dans les siècles récents, et qu'elle était de plus en plus assujettie à la demande du marché mondial.

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Robert E. Carter

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Maritime Interactions in the Arabian Neolithic

The Evidence from H3, As-Sabiyah, an Ubaid-related site in Kuwait

Edited by Robert Carter and Harriet Crawford

Excavations at H3, Kuwait, throw important new light on the economy of the Arabian Neolithic, the early history of seafaring and boat-building, and relations with Ubaid Mesopotamia. It is now clear that the inhabitants of the eastern seaboard of the Arabian Peninsula were active players in a complex network that linked Mesopotamia, the northern and southern Gulf and perhaps Iran during the 6th and 5th millennia BC. Excavations at H3, Kuwait, throw important new light on the economy of the Arabian Neolithic, the early history of seafaring and boat-building, and relations with Ubaid Mesopotamia. It is now clear that the inhabitants of the eastern seaboard of the Arabian Peninsula were active players in a complex network that linked Mesopotamia, the northern and southern Gulf and perhaps Iran during the 6th and 5th millennia BC.
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Richard Fletcher and Robert A. Carter

This paper is based on research undertaken for the Origins of Doha Project. It is a unique attempt to interrogate the construct of the Arab city against rigorously collected evidence and meticulous analysis of historical urban geography. We have found that Doha in its urban layout, physical development, architecture, and pre-oil demographics, combined its disparate cosmopolitan elements into a blend that probably typified the historic Gulf town, simultaneously encapsulating aspects of the generalised “Arab and Islamic town.” We have found strong structural principles at work in both the traditional and the early modern town, many of which correlate strongly with tribal social organisation, although the historic population of Doha was neither overwhelmingly tribal in character nor entirely Arab in origin. Rather, these constituted prevailing ideologies, social structures, and identities in a diverse and cosmopolitan population

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Robert Jackson, Chris Carter and Michael Tarsitano

Abstract

Portia is a genus of web-invading araneophagic jumping spiders known from earlier studies to derive aggressive-mimicry signals by using a generate-and-test algorithm (trial-and-error tactic). Here P. fimbriata's use of trial-and-error to solve a confinement problem (how to escape from an island surrounded by water) is investigated. Spiders choose between two potential escape tactics (leap or swim), one of which will fail (bring spider no closer to edge of tray) and the other of which will partially succeed (bring spider closer to edge of tray). The particular choice that will partially succeed is unknown to the spider. Using trial-anderror, P.fimbriata solves the confinement problem both when correct choices are rewarded (i.e. when the spider is moved closer to edge of tray) and when incorrect choices are punished (i.e. when the spider gets no closer to edge of tray).

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Robert Henderson, Ruth Carter, Peter Muelleman, Jeffrey Ackley and Robert Powell