A largely overlooked and puzzling feature of morality is Moral Memory: apparent cases of directly memorising, remembering, and forgetting first-order moral propositions seem odd. To illustrate: consider someone apparently memorising that capital punishment is wrong, or acting as if they are remembering that euthanasia is permissible, or reporting that they have forgotten that torture is wrong. I here clarify Moral Memory and identify desiderata of good explanations. I then proceed to amend the only extant account, Bugeja’s (2016) Non-Cognitivist explanation, but show that it isn’t superior to a similar Cognitivist-friendly view, and that both explanations face a counterexample. Following this, I consider and reject a series of alternative Cognitivist-friendly explanations, suggesting that a Practicality-Character explanation that appeals to the connection between the practicality of moral attitude and character is superior. However, I conclude that support for this explanation should remain conditional and tentative.
This article considers the intertextual significance of Apollonios’s use on two occasions in the Argonautika of πανύστατος, a Homeric τρὶς λεγόμενον, found twice in the Iliad and once in the Odyssey. Homer applies it to Eumelos’s finishing position in the chariot race and the emergence of Polyphemos’s ram from the cave, Apollonios to Herakles’s endurance in the rowing contest and Aietes’s equally belated emergence from his palace. πανύστατος in itself simultaneously evokes belatedness and the sense of being the last remaining, in keeping with Apollonios’s epigonal poetics and his archaizing depiction of Herakles and Aietes. Intertextually, Herakles’s impromptu contest and Aietes’s role in the crypto-athletic ἄεθλος he sets Jason resonate with the Homeric funeral games and their exploration of the definition of excellence and how it is measured, through the figure of Eumelos who is both πανύστατος and ἄριστος. Polyphemos’s ram, whose superficially humble lastness conceals Odysseus’s victory, renders the relationship more complex still.