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Aristotle's unusual view that charis should play a role in exchange is defended from the criticisms of Meikle and others. Aristotle proposes to amend the conventional Athenian status transaction so that it benefits the weaker party. The stronger is rewarded with honour and increased social influence, which could protect him/her from punitive taxation or court judgments. The relations between Aristotle's views and those of Polanyi are indicated.

In: Méthexis


This paper explores the key characteristics of Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf's mission theology that influenced the early Moravian missional practice. After discussing the early eighteenth century European historical context and the Spirit-renewal of the Herrnhut community, the paper considers Zinzendorf's theology on the death of Christ, the prominent role of the Holy Spirit, and harvesting the "first fruits." These theological distinctives contributed in determining the motivation and message of these pioneer Protestant missionaries. It then takes into account some of the subsequent methods such as working with the marginalized, practicing the love of Christ in cultural humility, and preaching the gospel in the vernacular. The main contributions of the early Moravians to mission were that they brought an understanding that spiritual renewal preceded mission renewal, the atoning death of Christ is central to mission theology, and a Protestant recognition that it had an obligation to do mission. On the other hand, the foremost negative aspects of Moravian mission were their obsession with the physical death of Christ and an ignorance of the broader social issues that at times resulted in a lack of contextualization, religious syncretism, indifference to social justice, and extreme subjectivism.

In: Mission Studies


Often noted within modern editions of Anglo-Saxon charters but rarely discussed in depth, endorsements represent one of the most understudied aspects of documentary culture in early medieval England. This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of this feature, which is defined here a text that was composed with the intention that it would be written on the back (dorse) of the single-sheet charter. A wide variety of examples survives, some of which were written by the main scribe of the document, some possibly by a contemporary; others are ostensibly the work of later scribes, thus attesting to the continued importance of written records years after their initial production. Endorsements, moreover, come in different forms and languages. Most are predominantly in Old English, regardless of the languages of the main body of the charter, though others are predominantly or entirely in Latin. In providing an overview of these features, this chapter focuses its attention primarily on the evidence provided by charters that survive in early medieval single-sheet forms. This allows for greater accuracy when considering possible chronological, geographic and typological trends. It also means, furthermore, that this chapter offers readers an introduction to and summary of the single-sheet corpus itself.

In: The Languages of Early Medieval Charters
This is the first major study of the interplay between Latin and Germanic vernaculars in early medieval records. Building on previous work on the uses of the written word in the early Middle Ages, which has dispelled the myth that this was an age of ‘orality’, the contributions in this volume bring to the fore the crucial question of language choice in the documentary cultures of early medieval societies. Specifically, they examine the interactions between Latin and Germanic vernaculars in the Anglo-Saxon and eastern Frankish worlds and in neighbouring areas. The chapters are underpinned by an important comparative dimension on account of the two regions’ shared linguistic heritage and numerous cross-Channel links.

Contributors are: Stefan Esders, Albert Fenton, Robert Gallagher, Wolfgang Haubrichs, Charles Insley, Kathryn A. Lowe, Rosamond McKitterick, Rory Naismith, Janet L. Nelson, Edward Roberts, Annina Seiler, Marco Stoffella, Francesca Tinti, Kate Wiles, Bernhard Zeller.

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