Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Robert Kelley x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
In: Horizons in Biblical Theology
In: Horizons in Biblical Theology
In: Trials of Engagement

Abstract

The post-'9/11' revival of interest in US public diplomacy encompasses a wide variety of opinions, all overwhelmingly critical. In view of falling global favourability towards and the foreign policy challenges of the United States during this period, the purveyors of these opinions ultimately agree that US public diplomacy efforts are flawed and ineffective. Of these critical observations, it is interesting to track a thread of logic that yearns for the restoration of public diplomacy's Cold War-era standing, which holds that the spread of liberal democracy behind the Berlin Wall owes a debt to the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe, that cultural exchanges with influential members of Soviet society helped to create the groundswell that undermined the communist regime, and that public diplomats made these outcomes possible by being equipped with the necessary tools of statecraft, as well as by wielding an important measure of influence over policy-makers. The fall of the Soviet Union merely underscores their notion that public diplomacy during the Cold War was a success. It would thus seem that the problems of today could be remedied by adopting lessons from the past. This article explores the viability of this claim by reviewing the ongoing debate on how the historical memory and lessons of Cold War-era public diplomacy may be applied to the challenges of the post-'9/11' era. Of particular importance is ascertaining the degree to which the Cold War's campaigns of information, influence and engagement could be viewed as a success. By subdividing public diplomacy's activities in these ways, greater potential exists to attribute these activities to more compelling determinations of success or failure.

In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Abstract

This research seeks to create a predictive model of habitat suitability for use in determining waterbodies vulnerable to introduced species within the state of Michigan. Three members of the genus Faxonius (Decapoda, Cambaridae) were selected as test taxa for the model due to several species’ propensity for significantly altering the ecosystems they inhabit in Michigan and elsewhere. Michigan State University and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) conducted extensive field surveys of crayfish species assemblages across 461 stream sites from 2014-2016. This project compares these field data to data from publicly available national datasets with the purpose of revealing ecosystems that are vulnerable to population expansion. We identify patterns in Faxonius habitat at local (100 acres) and landscape (1000 acres) scales by associating crayfish occurrences throughout Michigan with variables characterizing landscape conditions thought to be important factors affecting their spread, growth, and survival. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model using variables from Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) successfully identified stream sites and watersheds in Michigan vulnerable to range expansion by Faxonius rusticus (Girard, 1852), Faxonius propinquus (Girard, 1852), and/or Faxonius virilis (Hagen, 1870). We found several habitat variables that influence our predictions. The most important variable describing F. rusticus presence was local (100-acre) scale Open Water land cover class, whereas for F. propinquus, the high-intensity developed land cover class at the local scale was the most important, while it was the shrubland land cover class at the local scale for F. virilis. This research demonstrates a powerful method to identify locations using remote sensing data that can be prioritized for conservation efforts that are threatened by invasive crayfish species.

In: Crustaceana