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This paper seeks to combine the insights gathered in a corpus study of the periphrastic perfect in Classical Armenian texts from the 5th century CE and research into the socio-historical and political interactions of the Armenians and their Iranian neighbours in the same time period.

It is argued that the construction of the Classical Armenian perfect, which consists of a participle in -eal (< PIE *-lo-) and an optional form of the copula, is most accurately described as tripartite morphosyntactic alignment:

– intransitive and transitive passive verbs construe with a nom subject under subject agreement of the copula;

– transitive active verbs take gen agents, acc objects, and the copula is an invariant

This pattern shows some diachronic variation and by the 8th century CE has given way to nomacc alignment under pressure from the rest of the verbal system. Based on observations in the corpus and typological data, this alignment pattern can be explained as a case of pattern replication and pivot matching of a Middle Iranian, specifically Parthian, ergabs model in pre-literary times and subsequent adaptation to Armenian requirements cf. Meyer (2016; 2017).

This explanation is lent further credence by the existence of both a great wealth of Iranian loanwords in Armenian, as well as a small number of other syntactic patterns that have clear Iranian parallels. Furthermore, the prevalence of political quarrels between the Parthian rulers of Armenia and other Iranians, their adoption of Christianity in c. 301 CE, frequent intermarriage with Armenians, and the lack of any Parthian language documents in the area suggest that the existence of Iranian syntactic patterns in Armenian is due not only to language contact, but indeed to language shift of the Parthian ruling class to Armenian. This, in turn, may provide a partial explanation of the first ‘death’ of Parthian, a significant attestation gap between Arsacid inscriptions and later religious documents.

In: Ancient Indo-European Languages between Linguistics and Philology

Structuralists and generativists have insisted for a long time that the elements and structures one language could borrow from another are constrained by typological compatibility, naturalness, and other factors (cf. : 13–34). Such constraints are still thought to apply to structural interference, or pattern replication in the terms of , and the often concomitant contact-induced grammaticalisation of non-native structures.

This paper suggests that a priori there are no typological constraints against pattern replication in general. It is proposed that typological differences between model and replica pattern are only of relevance during the grammaticalisation and maintenance of such patterns in the replica language; in other words, typological constraints do not apply at the stage of pattern replication. It will be argued that typology, in the form of system pressure, interacts with pattern frequency and socio-historical factors, which together determine retention, adaptation, or loss of a replicated pattern.

This argument is illustrated on the basis of three short studies of partial alignment change in Old Aramaic, Classical Armenian, and North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic, all of which have been in contact with Iranian languages for extended periods. In each case, Iranian ergative alignment patterns have been replicated, adapted, grammaticalised to varying degrees, and finally ousted in favour of nominative-accusative alignment. The loss of the replica pattern in each case is shown to be dependent on both typology, extent of bilingualism, and pattern frequency.

Open Access
In: Journal of Language Contact

While Armenian is not a member of the Iranian language family, its lexicon is replete with borrowings from esp. Parthian. This paper ventures to show that borrowing is not restricted to lexical items alone, but extends to the realm of syntax as well. This will be demonstrated by means of a corpus based investigation of the usage of Middle Persian xwd, Parthian wxd and its functional counterpart, Armenian ink‘n; furthermore, parallels regarding the expression of reflexivity in both language groups are addressed. The tripartite function of the respective pronouns as intensifier, discourse anaphora and clause level anaphora are the result of extended language contact between Armenian and Western Middle Iranian.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
Multidisciplinary Studies in Honour of Theo Maarten van Lint
The open access publication of this book has been published with the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation.
From pilgrimage sites in the far west of Europe to the Persian court; from mystic visions to a gruesome contemporary “dance”; from a mundane poem on wine to staggering religious art: thus far in space and time extends the world of the Armenians.
A glimpse of the vast and still largely unexplored threads that connect it to the wider world is offered by the papers assembled here in homage to one of the most versatile contemporary armenologists, Theo Maarten van Lint.
This collection offers original insights through a multifaceted lens, showing how much Armenology can offer to Art History, History, Linguistics, Philology, Literature, and Religious Studies. Scholars will find new inspirations and connections, while the general reader will open a window to a world that is just as wide as it is often unseen.


Fungi were isolated from soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) eggs collected in China, and 253 fungal isolates were assayed for production of compounds active against SCN and root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita). Fungal isolates were grown for 3 and 7 days in potato dextrose broth (PDB), the culture broths were sterile-filtered to remove fungal biomass, and the filtrates were placed into 24-well plates to test for effects on egg hatch and juvenile motility. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch ranged from 2 to 121% of hatch in PDB controls and H. glycines hatch from 15 to 224%. Activities of filtrates harvested after 3 and 7 days were significantly correlated. Only four isolates produced filtrates that significantly inhibited juvenile motility of SCN, RKN or both nematodes. This study identified fungal isolates capable of producing compounds active against these nematodes, and demonstrated that there was a low correlation in activity against SCN and RKN. The active fungal isolates are candidates for studies on identification of potential nematicides.

In: Nematology

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Open Access