In La Agonia de Europa, María Zambrano writes: “Europe is not dead, Europe cannot die completely; it agonizes. For Europe is perhaps the only thing—in history—that cannot die; it is the only thing capable of resurrection.” How to understand this provocative statement? What must Europe be for it not being able to completely die, but only to agonize? How to understand the mode of being Europe as one of continuous agonization? What kind of resurrection does European life refer to, and what is its significance in the context of Zambrano’s heretical Christianity? These are among the questions raised in the paper.
Against Lévi-Strauss’ contention that writing and, subsequently, violence find its way into Nambikwara society only through foreigners and from the outside, Derrida argues that their interdiction to use proper names is testimony to the fact that its members know the violence associated with naming. The paper discusses arche-writing as a most elementary form of writing, and the violence associated with it, as the condition of possibility for naming, and thus for relating to the Other to begin with. Furthermore, it elaborates on the two other kinds of violence that derive from the violence of naming, namely, reparatory violence and violence in the common sense.