This article examines the drafting of land contracts and the evolution of local property law in key regional centers of power during the transition from Islamic to Christian rule in eleventh- and twelfth-century Iberia. Through the analysis of a range of Arabic and Latin property land sales preserved in the ecclesiastical archives of Toledo and the Ebro valley, the following study looks for signs of potential legal and documentary diffusion taking place as a result of the Christian conquests of the Middle and Upper Marches of al-Andalus. The paper explores the relationship between property and its transfer, on the one hand, and the emerging post-conquest documentary cultures, on the other. It studies borrowings between Latin and Arabic land documents, some of which can be associated with Andalusī property and contract law. The article links this transfer of knowledge to the legal and economic interests of the religious institutions that preserved the Arabic documents, highlighting how new dioceses and monasteries reclaimed the rights and benefits associated with former mosques. Such findings are framed as part of the active preservation and engagement of local property knowledge and Islamicate documentary practices, and their recycling for the post-conquest management and reorganization of the land.
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive tick species and vectors of microbes causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis that were declared eradicated from the USA in 1943 through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. These tick disease vectors remain established and affect livestock health and production in other countries located in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. R. microplus is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock where it is established. Synthetic acaricides are used intensely to kill R. microplus and R. annulatus, but this leads eventually to the problem of acaricide resistance and other associated undesired effects. Novel and safer technologies that can be integrated with existing control methods are required to manage R. microplus and R. annulatus populations and associated diseases sustainably. In the case of the USA, the need for a systems approach was identified to keep the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis through the integrated use of technologies, including anti-tick vaccines, to eliminate outbreaks of R. microplus and R. annulatus. Anti-tick vaccines containing the recombinant antigen Bm86 are veterinary biologics used together with veterinary pharmaceuticals such as acaricides to enhance livestock protection where populations of R. microplus and R. annulatus are established. But, access to Gavac™, the only anti-tick vaccine commercially available and used to control R. microplus and R. annulatus, is limited to certain national veterinary products markets, excluding the USA. Efforts of a public-private partnership that developed, and obtained an experimental use permit issued to the animal health company Zoetis for a novel Bm86-based vaccine formulation to be integrated as part of operations by the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program are described here. Statutes more than 100 years old governing operations of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program were adapted to eliminate R. microplus and R. annulatus infestations in cattle and mitigate the risk of future tick outbreaks in the Permanent Quarantine Zone in south Texas on the border with Mexico by adding immunization with the Bm86-based vaccine as part of the operational protocol. This achievement enabled the experimental use of the Zoetis Bm-86 based vaccine to immunize beef and dairy cattle as part of the research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico. Our collective work documenting anti-cattle tick vaccine discovery research is described to illustrate how international cooperation supported research on integrated management for the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Public-private partnerships may be a way to develop novel anti-tick vaccines in other parts of the world for use as part of integrated R. microplus management strategies.