The lianas in the family Sapindaceae are known for their unique secondary growth which differs from climbing species in other plant families in terms of their cambial variants. The present study deals with the stem anatomy of self-supporting and lianescent habit, development of phloem wedges, the ontogeny of cambial variants and structure of the secondary xylem in the stems of Serjania mexicana (L.) Willd. Thick stems (15–20 mm) were characterized by the presence of distinct phloem wedges and tangentially wide neo-formed cambial cylinders. As the stem diameter increases, there is a proportional increase in the number of phloem wedges and neo-formed vascular cylinders. The parenchymatous (pericyclic) cells external to phloem wedges that are located on the inner margin of the pericyclic fibres undergo dedifferentiation, become meristematic and form small segments of cambial cylinders. These cambia extend tangentially into wide and large segments of neoformations. Structurally, the secondary xylem and phloem of the neo-formed vascular cylinders remain similar to the derivatives produced by the regular vascular cambium. The secondary xylem is composed of vessels (wide and narrow), fibres, axial and ray parenchyma cells. The occurrence of perforated ray cells is a common feature in both regular and variant xylem.