The Calliphoridae are a widespread family of insects of great medical, veterinary and forensic importance. They encompass, among others, the familiar greenbottle and bluebottle filth flies.
The book presents a taxonomic revision of the blowflies of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Keys and diagnoses, descriptions, summaries of distribution and biology are given for all taxa. Male and female genitalia are illustrated in great detail. The nomenclature is revised and numerous new specific and generic synonymies are established. Full references to the primary literature are given. A new subfamily classification of the world Calliphoridae is proposed on the basis of cladistic principles. The definition and higher classification of the family and related groups are discussed.
The four nominal species of Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy described by Camillo Rondani are revised. Lectotypes are designated and a synopsis of all names treated is provided. Pollenia paupera Rondani, 1862 is established as the valid name for Pollenia longitheca Rognes, 1987 (syn. n.). Pollenia ruficrura Rondani, 1862 (stat. rev.) is reestablished as a valid taxon.
Within Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy, a vagabunda species-group is defined and described. It consists of three species new to science: P. bezziana sp. n., P. stigi sp. n. and P. verneri sp. n. and two redescribed species: P. contempta Robineau-Desvoidy and P. vagabunda (Meigen). It is monophyletic on the basis of synapomorphies in the male cerci and the number of the inner posthumeral setae. Its sister-group is believed to be the viatica species-group. A key is provided and terminalia of both sexes illustrated for all species as far as these are known. A neotype is designated for Pollenia contempta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. A lectotype is designated for Pollenia hasei Séguy, 1928b. P. contempta is widely distributed in the western Mediterranean region and is the sister species of P. vagabunda with a much wider distribution in Europe. P. vagabunda is also reported from the U.S.A. for the first time. P. bezziana is described from Italy, P. verneri from Spain and Portugal, and P. stigi from high altitude in the Moyen Atlas mountains of Morocco. Musca varians Meigen in Morge (1975), nomen nudum, is established as a new synonym of Musca vagabunda Meigen, 1826.
Within Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy a venturii species-group is defined and revised. It consists of a single species P. venturii Zumpt. P. solitaria Grunin is proposed as a junior synonym. It is characterized by unique features in the male aedeagus and the lateral sacs of the internal female reproductive organs. Male and female terminalia are illustrated, the latter for the first time. A preliminary cladistic analysis of all known Palaearctic species of Pollenia (except P. japonica Kano & Shinonaga) suggests that the sister-group of P. venturii is a clade consisting of the viatica + vagabunda + amentaria + haeretica species-groups. A sclerotized internal wall of the lateral sacs in the internal reproductive system of female Pollenia appears to be a parallelism developed independently in the venturii, rudis, most members of the tenuiforceps and some members of the semicinerea groups, rather than an underlying synapomorphy. P. venturii is known from France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Russia. A key is provided to species-groups in Pollenia.
The male, female and larva I (uterine) of Gulmargia angustisquama gen. n., sp. n. are described from northern India (Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh). The female is macrolarviparous. Gulmargia and the western Palaearctic Eurychaeta Brauer & Bergenstamm are vicariant sister groups which together form the subfamily Helicoboscinae of the Calliphoridae. Revised definitions of Helicoboscinae and Eurychaeta are provided. The monophyly of all taxa involved is established on the basis of several synapomorphies. It is suggested that the Helicoboscinae is an ancient clade of the Calliphoridae.
Sarcophaga alpina Zetterstedt, 1838 is established as a new junior synonym of Musca genarum Zetterstedt, 1838; stelviana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, stat.rev., in the combination Calliphora stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm), replaces alpina: authors, not Zetterstedt, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for Musca genarum Zetterstedt, 1838, Musca laticornis Zetterstedt, 1838 and Acrophaga stelviana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891. The type-species of Acrophaga Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 has been misidentified and it is recommended that the nominal species Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 be designated as type-species.
The Western Palaearctic genus Helicobosca Bezzi, 1906 is described in detail and its systematic position discussed. The monophyly of the calyptrate families Tachinidae, Rhinophoridae, Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae is reviewed. Helicobosca is removed from its current position within the subfamily Paramacronychiinae of the Sarcophagidae and transferred to the Calliphoridae, where a new subfamily Helicoboscinae Verves, 1980, stat.n., is erected for its reception. The third stage larva of H. palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) is described for the first time.
Fannia stigi n.sp is described from the subalpine region of SW Norway and northern Sweden. It belongs to the spathiophora subgroup of the postica species-group. It is compared with western Palaearctic members of this subgroup. A lectotype is designated for F. bisetosa Ringdahl, 1926, whose synonymy withF. aethiops Malloch, 1913 is confirmed.
Sarcophaga magnicornis Siebke, 1863 is established as a new junior synonym of Sarcophaga fuscipalpis Zetterstedt, 1845 (now in Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 or in Francilia Shannon, 1924) and removed from the synonymy of Musca genamm Zetterstedt, 1838 (now in Calliphora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 or in abonesia Villeneuve, 1927). Mis-citations of dates of publication and other errors concerning genamm Zetterstedt and magnicornis Siebke in the literature are pointed out.