Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for

  • Author or Editor: Roland R. Dute x

Roland R. Dute

Pit membrane ontogeny in radial walls of Ginkgo biloba tracheids was followed using transmission electron microscopy. Torus initiation occurs prior to initiation of the pit border and without benefit of a microtubule plexus. The developing pit membrane is associated with masses of wall material located within plasmalemma invaginations. Wall material is added in such a manner as to form a torus with highly irregular surfaces. Margo and torus are traversed by plasmodesmata, whose channels are connected by extcnsive median cavities. Matrix material is removed from both margo and torus shortly after hydrolysis of the adjacent cytoplasms. Matrix removal begins at the pit membrane surface and is not preferentially associated with the plasmodesmata. Tori in aspirated pit membranes have compacted fibrils, and their fibrillar compaction might reduce permeability to air embolisms.

Roland R. Dute and Thomas Elder

Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the margo. Margo microfibrils are loosely packed thus facilitating passage of water molecules. The pustular layer is removed by acidified sodium chlorite. Tori of Cercocarpus montanus also have a pustular surface, but lack a corona. Tori of Pinus taeda have a finely granular to amorphous torus matrix. Ulmus alata tori have microfibrils traversing the surface. The atomic force microscope proves itself a useful tool for high resolution study of pit membranes with only minimal specimen preparation.

Angela C. Morrow and Roland R. Dute

Botrychium dissectum Sprengel rhizomes were examined at monthly intervals from February 1993 through December 1994. Sampies taken ranged from those with an inactive cambium and only mature tracheids to those having an active cambium and immature tracheids. The vascular cambium became activated in the early fall prior to maturation of the leaf and fertile spike complex. Intertracheid pit membranes with tori were present in all sampies, although the morphology of the torus varied. The presence of tori was first observed in a tracheid that had just initiated its secondary wall formation. As the pit membrane matured, matrix material was hydrolyzed first from the margo area, then from the torus, and eventually the pit membrane was represented only by a very thin network of microfibrils. In addition, studies confirmed that tracheids bordering parenchyma cells developed a torus thickening, aIthough no thickening of the parenchyma cell wall occurred. Torus ontogeny in B. dissectum combined features previously described for angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Roland R. Dute and Ann E. Rushing

Pit membranes between tracheary elements of Ulmus alata, Celtis laevigata, and Celtis occidentalis often contained tori. The degree of development of tori varied and was greatest in those membranes connecting elements of small diameter. Complete tori consisted of two wall thickenings adjoined by a central layer. In three dimensions the shape of the torus often approximated a grooved wheel. Initiation of thickening in the pit membrane occurred first on the side of the older cell and was well underway prior to the beginning of secondary wall synthesis. Torus formation resulted from the thickening of the primary walls of the pit membrane. Development of the torus was associated with membranous vesicles and cisternae but not with microtubule complexes as was reported in Osmanthus. The pit membranes in this study are capable of aspiration, and the tori may prevent rupture of the pit membrane during this process.

Angela C. Morrow and Roland R. Dute

TEM investigation of the torus-bearing pit membranes in tracheids of Botrychium dissectum wood has revealed in some specimens a coating that covers the pit membrane and torus, and sometimes lines the lumen-side of the tracheary wall. Such coatings have been associated with wound response in dicot woods, but have not previously been reported in the wood of Botrychium. In response to wounding, rhizome sampIes incubated on water-saturated filter paper produced the coating material within 4 days. Rhizome sampIes that were incubated with an ethylene inhibitor for a maximum incubation time of 20 days did not develop the wound-response coating. Therefore, based on experimental evidence the wound response appeared to be ethylene mediated. Field sampIes which were artificially grazed by removing the leaf/spike complex exhibited a displaced wound-response coating in the rhizome. Histochemical studies indicate that the coating material has both pectin and phenolic components.

Roland R. Dute and Ann E. Rushing

Bordered pit pairs connecting tracheary elements in the wood of Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. ' Hook. ex Gray contained a torus in the pit membrane. This structure is approximately 2.5 μm in diameter, and is located at or near the centre of the pit membrane. The encrusting material of the torus could be removed by treatment with sodium chlorite. Thin seetions through theJorus showed it to consist of a pad of wall material appressed to either side of the compound middle lamella. The membrane surrounding the torus (the margo) consisted of fibrils and a variable amount of enc10sing matrix. The fibrils were generally c1oseIy packed and randomly oriented, although occasionally a radial component was also present. Aspiration of the pit membrane in air-dried material caused the torus to seal off one of the pit apertures. During this process the torus probably prevented rupture of the pit membrane at that site.

Roland R. Dute and Ann E. Rushing

The development of the torus in the wood of Osmanthus americanus was investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Torus formation on either side of the pit membrane did not begin until after the development of the associated pit border was well underway. No plasmodesmata were encountered in the torus at any time during its ontogeny. Synthesis of torus material was correlated with a mass of randomly oriented microtubules and dictyosome vesicles. The two halves of the torus did not develop synchronously; deposits of torus material were evident first in the older of two adjacent cells. Selective hydrolysis of the matrix material of the margo also began fIrst on that side of the pit membrane associated with a mature tracheary element. Evidence is presented for a fibrillar as weIl as a matrix component in the torus.

Roland R. Roland R.Dute, Kathy M. Duncan and Brandon Duke

During a study of fascicle abscission in Pinus taeda L., tyloses were observed to occlude tracheids of both proximal and distal abscission scars. The tyloses represent the protrusion of ray parenchyma cells into tracheid lumens. Multiple tyloses often arise from a given parenchyma cell and can enter multiple tracheids. Tyloses occur as part of an abscission process that also includes the presence of Type II cells (programmed to enlarge during abscission in the presence of ethylene) and rupture of tracheids-features common to abscission in angiosperms.

Roland R. Dute, Ann E. Rushing and John D. Freeman

Of 22 species of Daphne surveyed, 19 possessed tori in their intervessel pit membranes. The torus has a circular shape and is centrally-located on the pit membrane. The fibrils of the surrounding margo show a random arrangement. In some specimens, the fibrils are obscured by material that impregnates the margo, coats the torus, and lines the cell lumens. The margo has small pores. In those species without tori, the intervessel pit membranes, when intact, show randomlywoven fibrils and small pores. Air-dried membranes of these speeies tend to separate into two layers along the line of the middle lamella The presence of a torus is not correlated with evergreen or deciduous habit, but absence of a torus seems to be limited to species of the section Mezereum within the genus Daphne.

Roland R. Dute, Ann E. Rushing and James W. Perry

A torus is present in intervascular pit membranes in the wood of Daphne odora and D. cneorum, but not in D. mezereum. In the two former species, each torus is surrounded by a margo consisting of fibrillar material in a tightly woven pattern. Tori are of greater diameter than pit apertures and completely occlude the apertures during aspiration. Evidence from D. odora indicates that torus deposition is spatially associated with vesicles and a plexus of microtubules, and does not begin until pit border formation is complete. The material deposited during torus synthesis also impregnates the wall of the pre-existing pit membrane. The plasmalemma often is closely appressed to the pit membrane at the site of the developing torus. In half-bordered pit pairs between tracheary elements and parenchyma cells, a torus thickening is deposited only on the side of the tracheary element. As in Osmanthus americanus, it is hypothesised that the presence of tori in species of Daphne prevents rupture of the pit membrane during aspiration.