This paper first provides a description of the relationship between regional characteristics and the development model of secondary vocational education through a simple analytical framework. Then based on the perspective of regional vocational education, it discusses the four relationships between the present private secondly vocational education and its public counterpart, followed by an introduction to the status of different types of private secondary vocational schools based on investigations and studies. After that, international comparisons are made to reveal the underlying contradictions in the development of China’s secondary vocational education at present as well as the acute challenges confronting the Eastern and Midwest parts of China. At last, the authors provide specific suggestions on reforming the investment system, establishing a more open governance structure, and supporting the development of private vocational schools.
This article employs qualitative research methods to explore the urban adaptation and adaptation processes of Chinese migrant children. Through twenty-one in-depth interviews with migrant children, the researchers discovered: The participant migrant children showed a fairly high level of adaptation to the city; their process of urban adaptation emerged as three categories: the U-Type, the J-type, and the “flat line” type. Also explored were long-term acquisition of explicit behaviors, implicit notions, adaptation to the socio-cultural environment, and success in education as difficult aspects of adaptation. After comparing these three processes, the research team developed a theory of migrant children urban adaptation. It hypothesizes that during the urban adaptation process, migrant children will encounter four stages of development: excitement and curiosity, shock and resistance, exploration and adaptation, and finally integration and assimilation.
The flow of xylem sap in bamboo is closely associated with metaxylem vessels and the pits in their cell walls. These pits are essential components of the water-transport system and are key intercellular pathways for transverse permeation of treatment agents related to utilization. Observations of metaxylem vessels and pits in moso bamboo culm internodes were carried out using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to examine mature bamboo fractures and resin casts. The results showed that bordered pits were distributed in relation to adjacent cell types with most pits between vessels and parenchyma cells and few pits between vessels and fibers of the bundle sheath. The pit arrangement was mainly opposite to alternate with apertures ranging from oval, flattened elliptical, or slit-like to coalescent. The vertical dimensions of inner apertures and outer apertures of the pits were about 0.9–2.7 μm and 1.1–3.8 μm, respectively. According to the relative position, and size difference between the inner apertures and their borders, the bordered pit shapes were categorized into three types, namely PI, PII and PIII (). Half-bordered pit pairs were observed between vessels and direct contact parenchyma cells. Most vessel elements possessed simple perforation plates.
Not only are vessel pits vital for the passage of sap into adjacent cells, but their anatomical morphology is also used as a tool to identify bamboo species. However, detailed studies comparing the pits’ structural parameters in culms of species with three rhizome types: sympodial bamboo, amphipodial bamboo, and monopodial bamboo, are lacking. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were conducted to obtain the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vessel pits in sympodial, amphipodial and monopodial bamboos, from twelve bamboo species in eight genera. Sympodial bamboos possess small and ovoid bordered pits, whereas amphipodial bamboos contain an abundance of slit-like pits, with the greatest pit membrane length occurring in the vessel wall. Both minute and large pit sizes can be found in monopodial bamboos. This study identified the first compound pits ever to be found in a bamboo species and these were found to occur more frequently in amphipodial and monopodial bamboos than in sympodial bamboos. Using the distribution frequency of the pit chamber’s horizontal diameter, we were able to determine pit size as being either small, medium or large. The striking differences in the vessel pits’ qualitative and quantitative characteristics could be the result of different climate and environmental factors.
Ground parenchyma cells play a crucial role in the growth and the mechanical properties of bamboo plants. Investigation of the morphology of ground parenchyma cells is essential for understanding the physiological functions andmechanical properties of these cells. This study aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of bamboo ground parenchyma cells and provide a qualitative and quantitative basis for the more effective utilization of bamboo. To do this, the morphology of ground parenchyma cells in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) was studied using light microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results show that various geometric shapes of ground parenchyma cells were observed, including nearly circular, square, long, oval, and irregular shapes. Cell walls of both long and short parenchyma cells exhibited primary wall thickening and secondary wall thickening, resulting in a primary pit field and simple pits. Most long cells were strip-shaped (L/W = 2.52), while most short cells were short and wide (L/W = 0.59). The proportion of long cells was 11 times greater than that of short cells. Most long cells were filled with starch grains, and some short cells also occasionally had starch grains. These findings allowed the first construction of the three-dimensional structure of parenchyma cells.
DNA barcoding seeks to assemble a standardized reference library for rapid and unambiguous identification of species, and can be used to screen for potentially cryptic species. The 5′ region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), which is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene fragment, has been proposed as a universal marker for this purpose among animals. However, DNA barcoding of reptiles is still supported only by few datasets compared with other groups. We investigated the utilization of COI to discriminate 34 putative species of vipers, representing almost 92% of the recorded species in China. Based on a total of 241 sequences, our results indicated that the average degree of intraspecific variability (0.0198) tends to be one-sixth the average of interspecific divergence (0.0931), but no barcoding gap was detected between them. The threshold method, BLOG analyses and tree-based methods all can identify species with a high success rate. These results consistently suggested the usefulness and reliability of the DNA barcoding approach in Chinese vipers.
A sacculinid rhizocephalan parasite, Sacculina lata Boschma, 1933, was discovered in the Beibu Gulf (= Gulf of Tonkin) west of Hainan Island, China, occurring in 7.4% of 363 Charybdis miles (De Haan, 1835) collected by 30 trawls in July 2017. This is the first time that S. lata has been recorded in Beibu Gulf and in the Chinese Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). Of the sampled crabs from 9 stations, 8 males and 19 females were found bearing externae of S. lata on the abdomen, a prevalence of 4.1 and 11.2% in male and female crabs, respectively. The dominant size group of infected males was larger than that of females. There was no significant relationship between water depth and infection rate of the parasite. A positive correlation was found both between volume and weight of externae, and between surface area of externae and abdomen width of the host crabs. Carapace width and wet weight of infected crabs were significantly less than those of uninfected crabs. In male crabs, the first pleopods of infected individuals were shorter than normal, but their pleons were wider. The propodus of the chela of a parasitized crab was significantly larger than that of normal crabs, both in males and females. No rhizocephalan-infected female crab was found bearing eggs.
Lycodon gongshan Vogel and Luo, is a newly described snake species that is endemic to southwestern China. Based on two mtDNA gene fragments and two nuclear genes, a molecular phylogeny for the genus Lycodon was reconstructed and the systematic position of L. gongshan was evaluated. The results revealed that L. gongshan formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade with L. fasciatus, and (L. cavernicolus + L. butleri), although the relationships among them were unresolved. The close genetic relationship between L. gongshan and L. fasciatus is consistent with hypotheses based on morphological data. Additionally two specimens from Guangdong, previously identified as L. fasciatus, showed a sister relationship with L. liuchengchaoi with low genetic difference, indicating that the two specimens were misidentified, and illustrating that L. liuchengchaoi may have much broader distribution than previous thought.