The oceans are the venue for a vast range of competing human activities, many of which pose serious threats to the marine environment. Seabed activities, in particular, pose complex threats due to the perturbation of marine biodiversity and the water column caused by construction, exploration or exploitation activities. With regulation of ocean activities essentially a sectoral matter, the potential for inter-sectoral conflict between shipping, fisheries, mineral exploration and exploitation, cable and pipeline operations and mining operations, only exacerbates the problem. In recent years, consensus has emerged on the need to promote cross-sectoral cooperation and coordination among marine sectors in order to avoid inter-sectoral conflicts and to achieve sustainable environmental outcomes for the oceans. This chapter examines the general principles which provide the foundation for the development of normative frameworks and management approaches, as well as the new cross-sectoral management approaches and tools that are emerging in order to address conflicting uses on the seabed and conserve and protect the marine environment.
Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) have adopted a range of measures aimed at promoting compliance with the conservation and management measures they adopt and at deterring IUU fishing. However, enforcement of those measures continues to be problematic. This article reviews current compliance and enforcement measures, and discusses their shortcomings. It then examines the legal basis for the adoption by RFMOs of an expanded range of measures aimed at strengthening their enforcement capability and provides practical suggestions as to the possible content of those new measures. Particular attention is paid to the modus operandi of international co-operation and the emerging practice of non-flag state enforcement.