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In: Paradoxes in Education
In: Paradoxes in Education
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Education is a ‘marmite’ system,1 which students love or hate but have to endure. Complex issues underpin educational practice and are discussed by expert authors to provide evidence for planning future policy directions. Views on present education conclude that an academic focus for passing tests does not promote or produce useful, relevant learning and devalues students with practical talents, marginalising communication and creativity. We are a society whose ability to know has grown at the rate that ability to do has diminished. Examination of how technology is changing life-styles suggests a stronger focus on personal competencies, like communiation and relationships, to negotiate the modern world. Quality of exchanges is central to living successfully in diverse societies, as well as improving learning, now more is demanded of us in higher-value work, with technology taking over all routine procedures. Education is a communicative process that is instructive or destructive, causing satisfaction or stress, integration or division, if not handled well. Face-to-face communication is declining, so requiring a closer look at how learning is implemented and achieved. Present campaigning on student mental health issues, suggests much more has to be done to equip young people to deal with life today. Putting aside technology for more time to process and share ideas together is advocated. This theme threads through the present text, providing food for thought and evidence to support action.

In: Paradoxes in Education
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Research suggests teachers are trained to implement the National Curriculum rather than understanding how learning occurs and strategies needed to process information for effective responses. Teaching is challenging, now that many students learn in a language different from mother-tongue. The UK Department of Education presently estimates we need 267 new schools to cope with the 20% increased numbers in schools due to immigration. As non-white families have higher fertility rates this may be an underestimate. Communication across cultures in teaching and learning is a vital issue with countries, like Japan, making it a major school focus. It demands knowledge of student backgrounds, in order to understand their abilities and attitudes to education and society. Emphasis on human development (particularly people interaction) is seen in Japanese teacher-training - grasping the home-school communication shift and its importance for learning. Teachers assess whether conversational moves in informal (home) talk are established to enable formal (school) language, allowing students to move from oracy to literacy and numeracy successfully. This emphasis is not seen in UK education but needs to be considered for higher standards to be achieved.

In: Paradoxes in Education
Learning in a Plural Society
Volume Editor:
The world of 2017 is unrecognisable. In September, a robot, YuMi (with incredibly expressive nuances) will conduct a Tuscan orchestra while Andrea Bocelli sings Woman is Fickle (La donna è mobile) from Verdi’s Rigoletto. University students have invented a ‘rowbot’ which is faster than the Cambridge and Oxford boat crews in the annual regatta and they are challenging rivals to compete in a new hi-tech event: the Rowbot race. The Australians have developed Hadrian X which can lay 1000 bricks an hour – a task that would take two humans a day or two. De Laval International’s cow-milking robot is being deployed in America to challenge the humans! All routine jobs will soon be carried out by robotic machines. This situation is depressing students who are striving to find jobs and feeling overwhelmed by the enormity of life. Education promotes compliant rather than creative learners, employing out-dated teaching models, which aimed to prepare pupils for routine work in factories and other places. Today, these mundane tasks are being taken over by artificial intelligence, so greater attention to learning needs and personal development is required for higher-level work, to be ahead of our new robot rivals! Students must acquire excellent abilities to communicate, collaborate and create, for coping with a rapidly changing, challenging, complex world.

This book is the output of the first UK Doctorates by Professional Record, who have studied present society needs, formulating and implementing new ideas into their practice, to make learning more holistic, relevant and fun! Their suggestions encourage us to reflect, review and refine our present, outdated systems and produce a blue-print for a brave new world. Stories will make you smile at successes and wince at the failures. Sharing experiences, supports, energises and expands learning. The authors hope that students will not leave school hanging on the negatives but will in future be swinging with the positives, that a radical new approach to learning brings for them.

Chapters in this book are contributed by: Jonathan Adeniji, Max Coates, Richard Davies, Rob Loe, Pauline Lovelock, Riccarda Matteucci, Elizabeth Negus, Kim Orton, Luke Sage, Rosemary Sage, and Sera Shortland.
Author:

The chapter has 3 sections: Defining Cross-cultural Communication; Communication Difficulties, concluding with Culture & Language Styles. The aim is to develop a broad awareness of the many factors involved in teaching with an intercultural perspective. The text is interspersed with activities which can be used by both teachers and students to help ease relationships and learning in the classroom. These tasks have been successfully adapted for a variety of age levels and employed across subject areas as appropriate. They were devised for a European Union (EU) project (INTERMAR, 2011–2014) to improve communication across different ethnic, language and cultural groups. The evaluation suggested that such input should be part of all student experience.

In: Paradoxes in Education
Chapter 3 Is School an Outdated System?
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Abstract

School is not the only way to gain an education. Chicago University academics at a Manchester University 2004 conference: It is Good to Talk, shared research showing that only 15% of what we learn is in a formal context like school, college or university. Historically, formal education is a recent invention in the United Kingdom (UK) since 1893. Mass schooling established because of the rise of industrialisation in 19th century Europe. This required employees with more knowledge and skills to comply with directions and implement machine routines and their support systems. An experienced teacher instructed student groups in the information and competencies needed for future work. Teachers were the most active in the class – transmitting information, instructions and demands. Today, there is more knowledge about interactions between learners and their teachers in the context of the local culture. However, most teaching today follows a traditional model, because of government standard targets to be met and international league tables that measure institutional differences. Therefore, these requirements encourage a transmissive teaching style. The chapter discusses issues as our diverse society, with new employment possibilities resulting from machines taking over job routines, demands more flexible learning.

In: How World Events Are Changing Education
Chapter 2 The Present and Future World
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Abstract

It is fascinating to learn that since the lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, the sale of Seneca’s letters from a Stoic have increased by 747% and the Meditations of Aurelius by 356% (Daily Telegraph, 5 May 2020). We might wonder what a Hellenistic School of Thinking, founded by Zeno of Athens in the 3rd century BC, could teach us today. In an uncertain world, there is much to examine in these ancient writings as preparation for the future. Stoic philosophers believed that the key to a reasonable life is learning to live in the moment and not regretting the past or worrying about the future. Therefore, to focus on the present is the cure for anxieties hovering around and ready to hit at any moment. If a situation displeases and distresses, the Stoics advise leaving or changing and stop complaining about it. I remember my mother advising: “like it, lump it or leave it”, as the recipe for dealing with difficult situations. The pressure of constant testing makes education tough for many students. The recent pandemic revealed anecdotal evidence that some students with additional needs coped better away from school or college pressure. This chapter considers learning strategies for political review and ends with reflecting on the big changes afoot in our rapidly expanding age of technology.

In: How World Events Are Changing Education
Chapter 10 Third Generation Doctorates
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In: How World Events Are Changing Education
Chapter 18 E-Learning But Not Always E-Quality
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Abstract

E-learning has coped with the COVID-19 2020 pandemic, when face-to-face teaching activities have been impossible due to regular lockdowns. This has spot-lighted unfortunate inequality issues that have added to student mental stresses. Not only do some learners lack the necessary technology and home support to access on-line materials, but others are unable to process information without ongoing help. In the United Kingdom (UK) we have a National Curriculum that is highly prescriptive, with regular Standard Assessment Tests (SAT s) and examinations. This system, therefore, focuses on what to learn rather than how to achieve knowledge and competencies effectively. Students who perform successfully in structured, supportive classrooms, have been floundering trying to cope without their usual, individual guidance. This has shown up their learning issues more acutely, based on linguistic deficiencies that have not been adequately assessed and identified. Stories have emerged during lockdown periods of their frustrations at not being heard. This chapter describes and discusses these problems with ideas of how to manage them to mitigate problems.

In: How World Events Are Changing Education