Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 53 items for

  • Author or Editor: Roshdi Rashed x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
Author:

Abstract

This article examines how the knowledge of Arabic science allows a better understanding of “classical science”. The latter is traditionally considered to be the early modern European science which gradually replaced Aristotelian physics and cosmology with a new rationality characterised by mechanism, mathematisation and experiment. Rashed argues that the new rationality of classical science was introduced earlier by Arabic science between the ninth and the twelfth centuries. This new rationality was both algebraic and experimental. It relied upon algebra’s own development after al-Khawārizmī (780–850), as well as in its relationship with other mathematical disciplines. It is based on a new ontology, making possible what was not possible before. For example, the same subject could be determined both geometrically and arithmetically; a problem could have an infinite number of true solutions; an approximate solution could be a true solution and an impossible solution could also be a true solution. As far as experiment is concern, Arabic science conceives a new concept of proof in physics and accepted that the level on which a physical object existed was no longer its “natural” level, but was within the real of the experimental.

This new algebraic and experimental rationality, which characterises classical modernity, was founded between the ninth and the twelfth century by scholars as far apart as Muslim Spain and China, all of whom were writing in Arabic.

In: Mathematics and Physics in Classical Islam
Author:

Abstract

In his article “Ibn al-Haytham: between Mathematics and Physics”, Rashed explains, in a more detailed manner, the meaning of the combination between mathematics and physics that emerges in the works of Ibn al-Haytham. In astronomy, Ibn al-Haytham, having found contradictions in Ptolemy, established a totally geometrical celestial kinematics, independent of cosmological considerations and of Aristotelian dynamics. The result was a model of the apparent motion of the “seven planets” halfway between Ptolemy and Kepler. In optics, Ibn al-Haytham reformed the optics of Euclid and Ptolemy, which was a geometry of perception, and modified the doctrine of the Islamic Aristotelian philosophers of Islam, who considered the forms perceived by the eye as “totalities” transmitted by the objects under the effect of light. He separated the theory of vision from the theory of light and established experimentally that light propagates independently of vision from illuminated objects onto the eye in straight lines and, he assumed, with great speed. In so doing, he founded a totally geometrical optics. The advances he accomplished in astronomy and optics were similar: he mathematised these disciplines and combined this mathematisation with the ideas of the physical phenomena.

In: Mathematics and Physics in Classical Islam
In: Contemporary Arab Affairs
In: Revue de Synthèse
In: Revue de Synthèse
Author:

In this article, the author deals with the factors he considers to be essential for the genuine acquisition of knowledge and, specifically, scientific knowledge – the Arabic term al- ilm being a referent to either or both. The phrase tawṭīn al- ilm used in the title and throughout could be translated literally as the ‘nationalization of science/knowledge’, however, the import is wider in scope and is intended to connote the process of making knowledge, science and scientific culture indigenous in and endemic to the Arab nation. In the view of the author, among the chief factors in such an initiative is to Arabize the language of scientific discourse in order to render original scientific thought and research innate and to facilitate its dissemination to a wider society that also must, of a necessity, become scientific and oriented towards the output of nationally-funded scientific research institutions.

In: Contemporary Arab Affairs
In: Oeuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d'al-Kindī, Volume 1 Optique et la Catoptrique
In: Oeuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d'al-Kindī, Volume 1 Optique et la Catoptrique
In: Oeuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d'al-Kindī, Volume 1 Optique et la Catoptrique
In: Oeuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d'al-Kindī, Volume 1 Optique et la Catoptrique