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In: Das Auge der Architektur
Author: Rudolf Meier


The eggs of 21 species in 12 genera of Sepsidae were studied using scanning electron microscopy. All but the eggs of Ortalischema have respiratory filaments which aid in gas exchange. Judged by positional differences and the lack of a central canal, the two filaments of Orygma are not homologous to the single filament of most remaining sepsids. Hinton's hypothesis that egg filaments are plesiomorphic for the Sepsidae is therefore rejected. Three egg characters are added to an existing data set comprising 58 taxa and 85 larval and adult characters. The egg characters allow the unambiguous placement of Lasionemopoda, for which the larval and adult data set had suggested two different positions on equally parsimonious trees. Based on the position of Lasionemopoda, the evolution of the fore femora of the Sepsidae is briefly discussed. The egg morphology of the Sepsidae is also compared to the morphology of drosophiline eggs which also have egg filaments.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
In: Diptera Diversity: Status, Challenges and Tools
In: Mimesis Bauen
Authors: Pont and Rudolf Meier
This volume deals with the European species of the family Sepsidae, a small family of acalyptrate flies. The taxonomy, biology and faunistics of all the European species are revised with emphasis on the Fennoscandian species, and the detailed distribution of the species known from Fennoscandia, the adjacent areas of Russia, Germany and Great Britain is tabulated in a catalogue. Keys are given to generic level for eggs, larvae and adults, and to species for the adults. Descriptions of the adults are provided for genera and species, together with diagnostic notes on the immature stages. The distribution and biology of the European species is summarized, and the results of extensive type-studies are presented. Illustrations are given of the male fore legs and genitalia of all the European species, and also of other characters of diagnostic importance for the egg, larval and adult stages. Nine genera and 44 species are dealt with, and one new species is described.


The results of a cladistic analysis based on a combined character matrix consisting of the morphological data set of Meier & Hilger (2000) and the molecular data set of Baker & al. (2001) is presented. The data set is subjected to an extensive sensitivity analysis and equal character weighting is found to perform best according to character incongruence and tree support. The sensitivity analysis also reveals a remarkable stability of the preferred tree with 25 of the 36 tree nodes supported under 16 different analysis conditions. Cyrtodiopsis is synonymized with Teleopsis and Shillito's (1971) synonymization of Trichodiopsis and Chaetodiopsis with Diasemopsis is confirmed. Morphological and DNA sequence data agree on all major clades and conflict is restricted to the placement of two species within their respective genera. Only in one case can the conflict be confidently resolved. Partitioned Bremer Support values reveal that 90% of the tree support is generated by the DNA sequence characters, although the average morphological character contributes twice the support of an average molecular character. The evolution of eye-stalk morphology and of a meiotic drive chromosome system in Teleopsis is briefly discussed in the light of the phylogenetic tree.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
This is the first comprehensive synopsis of the biodiversity of Diptera, which with more than 150.000 described species contain more than one tenth of all described animal species. The first part is a review of what is already known, with treatments of all the major biogeographical regions and important archipelagoes; the second part contains case studies on open-ended taxa, Diptera as ecological indicators, and how to estimate the still unknown proportion of our fauna; and the third part discusses the digital and molecular tools needed to document the fauna. The book has an emphasis on principles and analytical approaches as well as on practical ‘how-to’ information and is intended for academicians and other professionals but with a significant outreach to students.