Author: Ruizhi Zhang

The development of the Chinese legal system is based on the learning of foreign legal systems. Foreign legal history, as one of the elementary courses in higher legal education, is becoming a driving force for China’s progress toward the rule of law and is playing an indispensible role in the construction of Chinese legal system by educating, cultivating and academic exchanging. The discipline of Foreign Legal History not only provides diverse perspectives for the construction of a new Chinese legal system, but also testifies the establishment of the rule of law in China. It not only benefits Chinese legal system, but also makes contribution to the cultivation of the new generation of Chinese legal talents. Therefore, we should insist on learning from the legal cultural heritage embedded in Foreign Legal History for the purpose of developing Chinese legal system.

In: Frontiers of Law in China


For sex identification of the Brown-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum), one of the critically endangered endemic birds in China, the morphological method of checking the astragalus, an extra tiny bone on the ankle only of male ones is inconvenient and even impossible for wild populations. In this paper, we investigated a simple reliable non-invasive method according to the difference of the sizes of sex-linked genes CHD1-W and CHD1-Z (Griffiths et al., 1996; Ellegren, 1996) to identify the gender of individuals in two captive populations of the Brown-eared pheasant. We extracted DNA from blood and feather samples and amplified the genes by PCR using two pairs of primers P2/P8 (Griffiths et al., 1998) and 2550F/2718R (Fridolfsson et al., 1999). The products amplified with P2/P8 failed to show the sex due to the low resolution of the agarose gel. PCR using the 2550F/2718R primer set amplified two products of different sizes for all known females and a single product for all known males when scored on the 2.0% agarose gel, which indicated that this primer set enabled sex identification. Both blood and feather samples gave identical results although the products amplified from the feather samples were fewer than the blood samples which were taken invasively and acted as control. This is the first time molecular methods was used for sex identifications of the Brown-eared pheasant and will assist their management by means of artificial propagation and allow the study of the ecology and conservation genetics of the Brown-eared pheasant.

In: Animal Biology