At the 1986 Intecol Congress, a call was made by this author for transdisciplinary research so as to enable utilization of landscape ecological knowledge in the process of regional-scale landscape planning. In the ensuing years, there has been much intellectual ferment in landscape ecology circles in both Europe and America; one result has been increasing support for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research in this science.

This article explores the motivations, objectives, difficulties in implementation, and the potentials of inter- and transdisciplinarity in landscape study, research, and education involving highly complex total human ecosystems. The conclusion is reached, after considering the expressed sentiments of leaders in ecology and “environmental sciences” nineteen years later, that the need for transdisciplinarity is more urgent and critical than ever.

Pierre Delattre, Franklin S. Cooper, Alvin M. Lieberman and Louis J. Gerstman