The action plan on the ‘circular economy’ includes a number of actions in order to target market barriers in specific sectors or materials, such as food waste. Specifically, food waste is a significant concern in Europe: it is estimated that around 100 million tonnes of food is wasted annually in the European Union (EU). Food is lost or wasted along the whole food supply chain. Food waste reduction and waste treatment therefore are key issues, even in the recent Green Deal Strategy, which aims to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 and decouple economic growth from resource use, while ensuring the long-term competitiveness of the EU and leaving no one behind. The new Waste Framework Directives try to address the problems connected with the definition and the distinguishing between waste, by-product and end of waste. The production of second raw materials from the food waste treatment process and the consequent definition of end of waste is a central issue. European Food Law establishes the rights of consumers to safe food and to accurate and honest information. Whenever the recovery operation has transformed the waste into a food stuff, those rules apply to the end-of-waste new food product. The EU has progressively introduced legislation on these issues. The relevance of the different rules depends clearly on the different kinds of food stuff which has been produced by recycling the waste. In the legislative perspective there must be clear definitions of waste, by product and end-of-waste in order to invest for long term research and business programme.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of sciatic nerve mobilisation on muscle flexibility among diabetic and non-diabetic sedentary individuals. The study was a pre-post experimental-group design. A sample of 40 sedentary subjects was assigned into two groups; Group A (diabetics: 10 males and 10 females) and Group B (non-diabetics: 10 males and 10 females). Both groups were tested for hamstring and calf flexibility following which sciatic nerve mobilisation was given to the most affected lower limb in terms of reduced hamstring and calf flexibility. Hamstring flexibility was checked by active knee extension test and calf flexibility was checked with the distance-to-wall technique using a tape measure. It was a two-week program in which subjects were given sciatic nerve mobilisation using sliders technique after which flexibility was checked. Three sessions per week were given for two weeks and muscle flexibility of hamstring and calf was measured after the intervention. The present study findings reveal that sciatic nerve mobilisation by sliders technique when given to diabetic and non-diabetic groups of sedentary individuals for two weeks, enhance patient outcomes in both the groups in terms of increase in hamstring and calf flexibility, but results were more significant in non-diabetic individuals as compared to diabetic individuals. In conclusion, sciatic nerve mobilisation resulted in an increase of muscle flexibility of hamstring and calf muscles in both groups.
Hypertensive individuals tend to have autonomic dysfunction indicated by sympathetic dominance or delayed parasympathetic reactivation. A complimentary therapy such as music following exercise is considered to be beneficial in improving autonomic recovery. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of differential music tempo on post-exercise cardiovascular recovery parameters in hypertensive individuals. Thirty hypertensive individuals were recruited for the present study which were randomly allocated to no music (n=10), slow music (n=10) and fast music (n=10) group. Participants in all three groups were subjected to submaximal exercise bout by Harvard step test. The cardiovascular recovery parameters i.e. heart rate recovery (HRR), blood pressure recovery (BPR) and rating of perceived exertion recovery (RPER) were assessed in all three groups after 1 min, 2 min and 3 min following termination of exercise. A significant decline was observed in HRR (P=0.002) and RPER (P=0.008) following exercise in slow music group as compared to fast and no music while no significant differences were observed in BPR between the three groups. The study concluded that music accelerates post-exercise recovery and slow music has greater effect as compared to fast or no music. These findings may have potential implications in the cardiovascular recovery dynamics in hypertensive individuals participating in submaximal exercise.
Insects need a sufficient quantity of macro- and micronutrients in their diet for maximising their growth, development, and reproduction. To achieve high efficiency in the mass production of a particular insect species, the quality of the diet given must be considered, both in terms of its chemical (nutrients) and physical (hardness and form) characteristics. Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a beneficial insect widely reared due to its easy and cost-effective maintenance. An example of the end-product of BSF larvae (BSFL) is known as BSF oil, which can be used for animal feed, raw material in bar/liquid soap, and biodiesel. To obtain the best quality of oil produced from BSFL, finding an optimal substrate through diet mixing or manipulation is quite necessitated. Fatty acids with more than 18 carbons should be found in the substrate to be absorbed into the fat of BSFL to obtain a high-quality oil. There is a positive correlation between the fatty acid concentration in the substrate and the concentration in BSFL, that the concentration in BSFL is influenced by the concentration in the substrate. This emphasises the importance of the substrate’s fatty acid content in incorporating these fatty acids into BSF oil. Although the oils produced by the insect are especially high in medium-chain fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, yet, to produce on such a large scale requiring further investigations.
The study compared the two popular modes of training: repeated sprint and interval, in terms of oxidative load and aerobic capacity. 20 male collegiate soccer players were assigned into either a repeated sprint training (RST) or high intensity interval training (HIIT) group. Training protocols were for a period of 4 weeks (3 times/week). Serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake and maximum voluntary isometric contraction for quadriceps and hamstrings were measured before training and within 24 h after the completion of training. Significant improvement (P≤0.05) in antioxidant defence response and leg strength was seen in both groups. However, improvement in aerobic capacity was non-significant in RST as compared to HIIT. These findings indicate that both RST and HIIT can be used as a conditioning exercise to alleviate exercise-induced oxidative stress in the competition phase in addition to improvement in aerobic capacity.
Rising global population and sustainable protein demand have sparked interest in unique food sources. Entomophagy, or insect consumption, presents a solution and Scarab beetles, part of the Scarabaeidae family, offer a novel food option. The comprehensive review underscores their potential as human food, with strong nutrition, low environmental impact, and the ability to ease strain on conventional agriculture. Nutritional analysis reveals rich protein content, essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Scarab beetles’ beneficial fatty acid profile and healthy fats position them as a superior protein source to traditional livestock. Scarabaeidae excel in feed conversion, emit fewer greenhouse gases, and require minimal land, establishing them as an ecologically sustainable protein source. Cultural attitudes towards insect consumption vary; history exists in some regions while skepticism prevails in others. Highlighting nutritional advantages, organizing outreach, and introducing processed scarab products could enhance acceptance. The review addresses challenges including mass rearing, processing, allergens, and toxins. Evolving insect-based food regulations require cautious consideration. Success depends on multidisciplinary efforts including nutrition, environmental sustainability, cultural openness, and regulatory alignment. Continued research and collaboration are essential to fully unlock Scarabaeidae’s potential as a sustainable, nutritious food source for our growing global population.
The residual population growth imposes an increase in food demand, driving humans to practice agricultural intensification on a large scale. Paradoxically, food and feed production may end up causing various environmental problems. At the same time, about 2.37 billion people in the World currently lack basic food security insurance. As a consequence, alternative sources that can substantially address the demand for food and feed sustainably are needed. Insect farming may offer an environmentally friendly solution for mitigating global food and feed challenges. The article aims to explore the potential of insects as sustainable food and feed sources while assessing their environmental impact, offering innovative solutions for global food security challenges. By highlighting the benefits of edible insects, the article supports informed decision-making and promotes sustainable practices. Mass production of edible insects has seen record growth over the decade, and their demand as future proteins is projected to reach up to 3 million tons in 2030. Additionally, insect farming is evidenced to be economically viable. To meet the demand for edible insects, a breakthrough such as the internet of things can be used to scale up production and processing. However, detailed environmental impact assessments are needed to predict scenarios of large-scale insect farming. Life cycle assessments of some edible insect production systems have validated that insect farming has various beneficial environmental impacts. The utilization of edible insects as food and feed is promising for significantly improving food security and the environmental sustainability of food.
Insects have been a component of the human diet for ages, but their popularity as human food has only expanded considerably in recent years due to their potential as a large future food supply with high nutritional content and considerable environmental benefits. One of the promising insects with potential in foodstuff application is the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). It is believed that with the advancement of new knowledge and technology, edible insects, specifically RPW larvae, would gain more acceptance globally, expand their market, and serve as a more sustainable alternative to meat. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of RPW larvae as human food. This study further emphasises that RPW larvae are suitable for human consumption since they are nutritious. The trade-in edible insects, particularly RPW, presents tremendous potential, as many nations have begun to recognise them as human foods, and other nations, such as Thailand, even produce them on a food business scale. In order to present a more comprehensive perspective, the possibility of the RPW’s mass rearing is also examined. In addition, the global acceptance of RPW cannot be separated from several advantages compared to similar insect larvae of other species in terms of mass-rearing and distribution, as well as nutritional value, which indicates the larvae’s high potential for processing into food products. It is envisaged that this study would give an overview for policymakers to plan and implement more appropriate policies and regulations to assist the growth of the RPW industry.
As the global population continues to grow, traditional protein sources like meat and fish are becoming increasingly unsustainable due to their environmental impact. Edible insects, on the other hand, are highly nutritious, require minimal resources to produce, and emit significantly fewer greenhouse gases than traditional livestock. Lepidoptera, one of the most diverse insect orders, contains some popular edible species that have been consumed traditionally for centuries across the globe. Based on this review, about 24 families with a total of about 350 edible lepidopteran species were recorded. They are often praised for their excellent nutritional value, such as having high protein and healthy fat content. Edible lepidopterans also contain minerals, essential amino acids, and vitamins, making them a nutritious addition to a balanced diet. They also contain bioactive compounds which have various nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. Furthermore, some edible lepidopterans can be farmed and require minimal space and resources. However, there are significant challenges associated with their use as food. One of the primary challenges is the lack of regulations governing their production and distribution, which creates uncertainty for consumers and businesses alike. Consumer acceptance is also a significant barrier to the widespread adoption of insects as food. To overcome these challenges, there is a need for clear regulations that ensure the safety and quality of insect-based products. Furthermore, it is important to raise awareness about the nutritional and environmental benefits of edible insects as sustainable food for the future to promote their acceptance among consumers.
In Africa, food insecurity seems to be a continual problem as a result of various factors such as extreme poverty, water scarcity, land degradation, and climate change. As a result, chronic hunger and malnutrition are still prevalent in many African countries. Consequently, the utilization of available and affordable natural food sources is needed to accommodate the energy and nutritional requirements of the people, such as edible insects. Edible insects are abundant and locally available throughout Africa, hence could be utilized as low-cost, nutritious, and sustainable foods. Around 500 species have been recorded in sub-Saharan Africa out of the 2,100 known edible insect species worldwide. The consumption of insects, also known as entomophagy, has been historically practiced by indigenous people of Africa. To date, edible insects are seen in Africa as a good opportunity, particularly for rural households, to improve their livelihoods at an economic and nutritional level. Edible insects are a great source of energy and nutrients – and their rearing only requires a small amount of water, land and feeding resources. Entomophagy may also serve as an ecologically sound control measure for insect pests, such as locusts, that periodically wreak havoc on agricultural fields. The combination of being a highly nutritious food source and having economic advantages made edible insects very attractive in all the African regions. Their promotions into the diet would ameliorate the well-being of the population and boost economic growth in Africa. However, African countries need local and regional legal frameworks to achieve smooth functioning of marketing of edible insects and their products.