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The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical parameters related to meat quality, contributing to a better characterization of “Carne Mirandesa PDO” veal. This study was made in three farms, from the Northeast region of Portugal (PG, FA1 and FA2), where calves were raised permanently indoors, nurse from their dams overnight, and fed with hay and concentrate made with local ingredients and soybean meal. Twenty five calves were slaughtered at 7 months old. Twenty four hours after slaughtering, samples were collected from four different muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), gluteus biceps femoris (GB) and triceps brachii caput longum (TBL), vacuum packaged and freeze-dried. Determinations of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), collagen and fatty acid were made. Collagen, CP and EE were significantly (P < 0.001) affected by muscle type. Fatty acid composition was mostly affected by farm and by muscle type. The SM muscle was poor in saturated fatty acids (14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 17:0 and 18:0) and richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids than the other muscles. The ratio between n-3 and n-6 PUFA observed in this study are close to the usually found for pasture fed animals indicating the healthy value of “Carne Mirandesa PDO” veal.

In: Animal products from the Mediterranean area


Self-recognition is the ability of an animal to identify itself when observing its reflected image. Although many species have been tested, self-recognition has only been confirmed conclusively in a few taxa. We presented five Rosy-faced lovebirds, Agapornis roseicollis, with their own image using a mirror and applied the mark test, attaching a black sticker to each bird’s throat. We evaluated the potential tactile effect of the mark by attaching a transparent sticker to the bird’s throat. The results were analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models, which showed that four of five birds touched the black mark more than the transparent mark. There was no evidence that the birds could see the mark without the assistance of the mirror. The results of the study provide encouraging evidence that Agapornis roseicollis is able to recognise itself in a mirror and is the first parrot species to pass the mark test.

In: Behaviour
In: XX International Grassland Conference: Offered papers

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of a resistance training protocol on iron metabolism of police working dogs. Understanding of how physical exercise influences biochemical parameters is essential for a proper interpretation of exams and adjustments of nutritional and conditioning programs. Nine dogs, being four Belgian Malinois and five German Shepherd, 18.56±0.53 months old, were evaluated before (M1) and six weeks after (M2) a training program using a treadmill. Training sessions were performed twice/week including a 20-min of treadmill activity on a speed compatible with 60-80% of HRpeak on weeks 1 and 2; same exercise of weeks 1 and 2 with a 5% grade added between 7.5 and 12.5 min on weeks 3 and 4; and, same protocol of weeks 3 and 4 with three short bursts of strenuous exercise 60 min after the end of the treadmill exercise on weeks 5 and 6. On both moments (M1 and M2), animals were examined and blood samples were obtained before (T0) and after (T1) an incremental effort test and at 30 min (T2) and 120 min (T3) of recovery. Serum iron (Fe), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS) were determined. All variables were analysed using Tukey test, with P<0.05. Iron parameters were not modified by the current exercise protocol for training police working dogs.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology


In this paper, we report some morphological abnormalities for the deep-sea shrimp Glyphocrangon aculeata A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, collected from the western South Atlantic. All specimens analysed herein were collected in Potiguar Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, through bottom trawls along the continental slope between 150 and 2068 m depth in 2009 and 2011. Out of 59 specimens, one ovigerous female, collected at 1074 m depth, was registered with abnormalities in some regions of the carapace, abdomen and telson. Factors such as genetic mutations, nutritional alterations, or deformities during ecdysis are suggested as being the most probable cause of the deformities reported here.

In: Crustaceana
In: Proceedings of the 21st European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition

Despite the efficiency of transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins as insecticides against several lepidopterans, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one species that presents low susceptibility to most Bt crops. This study investigated the effects of the Cry1Ac toxin expressed by Bt cotton in the midgut of S. frugiperda and its effects on the humoral and cellular immune responses. Three hypotheses were proposed and tested with contributing factors for the natural tolerance of S. frugiperda: (i) midgut regenerative cells are activated by the Cry1Ac toxin, and thus renew the epithelial cells damaged by the protein, (ii) Cry1Ac increased production of nitric oxide or phenoloxidase in the hemolymph, and (iii) there are qualitative and quantitative variations in the hemocyte levels of S. frugiperda. Caterpillars were reared using Bt cotton (Acala 90B) and non-Bt isolines (Acala 90), from the first to the fourth instar. The Bt cotton promoted elongation of the epithelial cells in the midgut of S. frugiperda caterpillars. Hence, evidence only supported the hypothesised increase of phenoloxidase (ii) and qualitative and quantitative differences in hemocyte levels (iii) in insects that were fed with Bt and non-Bt cotton. These parameters seem to explain the low susceptibility of S. frugiperda to Cry1Ac toxin and they are a viable set of responses for the evaluation of other xenobiotic factors.

In: Animal Biology
In: XX International Grassland Conference: Offered papers