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In: Philosophy in Qajar Iran
Author:

Anyone considering the question of religious authority among the contemporary Shiʿa not least in Iraq will recognize the paramount significance of Ayatollah Sīstānī, described as the most important marjaʿ in the world. This paper examines the phenomenon of marjaʿiyya, considers how one becomes a marjaʿ, and traces the rise of Sīstānī to the pre-eminent position that he now holds and juxtaposes his model of leadership with other modern Shiʿi models of religious authority articulated by Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran and Bāqir al-Ṣadr in Iraq. Marjaʿiyya is a multivocal and in many ways a quintessentially modern institution that has proved to be highly resilient and adaptable in the face of challenges coming from globalizing modernity. In Iraq and in the region, Sīstānī has proven to be the most effective non-state wielder of authority and influence not just among believers but more widely in society and constitutes the most successful example of the Shiʿi marjaʿiyya in modern times.

In: Sociology of Islam
In: Accusations of Unbelief in Islam
In: Before and After Avicenna
Author:

(1640-1696), Moḥammad-Saʿid b. Moḥammad-Mofid, Shiʿite philosopher, jurist, and mystic of the Safavid period.

in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online
Author:

(1571/72-1635/36?), Ṣadr-al-Din Moḥammad, arguably the most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna.

in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online