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Abstract

The eleven countries that share the Nile River Basin have been locked into major disputes over the sharing and management of the River. These disputes relate mainly to some existing treaties that the two lower riparians (Egypt and Sudan) claim validity of, while the other riparians reject these treaties. As a result of this fundamental dispute, development plans of the waters of the River have followed unilateral approaches, as epitomized by the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (gerd), the largest project on the River. Moreover, negotiations on an inclusive treaty, the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework Agreement (cfa), collapsed for the same reason. This chapter discusses and analyzes these treaties and the differences over them, as well as the gerd and the cfa, and how the disputes thereon relate to these treaties. However, the chapter argues that these disputes, and the developments thereon, are finally leading the Nile riparians on the road towards inevitable cooperation.

In: A Bridge over Troubled Waters
In: Looking to the Future
In: The UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes
The World Bank Policy for Projects on International Waterways: An Historical and Legal Analysis discusses the evolution and context of the Bank policy for projects on international waterways. It starts with a brief description of how the Bank faced the challenges stemming from such projects, and analyzes the different approaches deliberated by the Bank that led to the issuance of the first policy in 1956. It then examines the main features, as well as the implementation experience, of each of the policies issued in 1956, 1965, and 1985. The principles of international water law prevailing at each stage are reviewed and compared with those of the Bank policy. The book discusses in detail the notification process, the different riparians’ responses, and how objections to Bank-financed projects are handled, as well as the exceptions to the notification requirement. It also assesses how the Bank has dealt with transboundary groundwater, and the linkages of the policy with the policies on disputed areas and environmental impact assessment. The book concludes with an overview of the main findings and lessons drawn from the implementation experience.
Notification of co-riparian states of planned measures on shared watercourses has been widely accepted as an established principle of international water law, and is codified and elaborated in the United Nations Watercourses Convention. However, despite this wide acceptance, differences have arisen on operationalizing notification, including on which riparians are required to undertake notification, and which riparians are entitled to it. Issues have also arisen on how to deal with the different types of responses that may ensue following notification. The World Bank has been financing projects on international watercourses since its inception in 1946, and has built an extensive wealth of policies and experience in this field. This monograph discusses the historical and legal foundations of notification under international law, analyzes the policies and implementation experience of the World Bank thereon, and identifies comparators and synergies between the provisions of the Watercourses Convention and the Bank policies and practice.
As of 2021, Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law is no longer published as a journal by Brill, but will continue as a book series. Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law is a hybrid journal and reference publication for research output on shared freshwater resources. Population growth, economic activities, environmental degradation, and climate change have exacerbated competition and ignited disputes over water resources (both surface water and groundwater) shared by two or more states. The entry into force of the United Nations Watercourses Convention has refocused the attention of the world community on shared water resources and underscored the pressing need for their equitable and sustainable sharing, inclusive and proper management, and environmental protection.

Each issue comprises a single, uniquely focused monograph that explores these aspects and addresses international, regional, and bilateral agreements and arrangements as well as thematic matters related to shared water resources. The journal’s target contributors and readers include international water law professors, researchers, practitioners, and graduate and undergraduate students.

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Abstract

Notification of co-riparian states of planned measures on shared watercourses has been widely accepted as an established principle of international water law, and is codified and elaborated in the United Nations Watercourses Convention. However, despite this wide acceptance, issues have arisen in operationalizing notification, and in dealing with the different types of responses that may ensue following notification. The World Bank has been financing projects on international watercourses since its inception in the late 1940s, and has built an extensive wealth of policies and experience in this field. This monograph discusses the historical and legal foundations of notification under international law, analyses the policies and implementation experience of the World Bank thereon, and identifies comparators and synergies between the provisions of the Watercourses Convention and the Bank policies and practice.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law

Abstract

Notification of co-riparian states of planned measures on shared watercourses has been widely accepted as an established principle of international water law, and is codified and elaborated in the United Nations Watercourses Convention. However, despite this wide acceptance, issues have arisen in operationalizing notification, and in dealing with the different types of responses that may ensue following notification. The World Bank has been financing projects on international watercourses since its inception in the late 1940s, and has built an extensive wealth of policies and experience in this field. This monograph discusses the historical and legal foundations of notification under international law, analyses the policies and implementation experience of the World Bank thereon, and identifies comparators and synergies between the provisions of the Watercourses Convention and the Bank policies and practice.

In: Notification concerning Planned Measures on Shared Watercourses