This article investigates why some states in the Asia Pacific have retained capital punishment, while others have abolished it, either de facto or de jure. In contrast to existing theories, it is theorised that governments conduct cost-benefit calculations considering both domestic support and international pressure for abolition, then formulate their death penalty policy based on the lowest cost scenario. This theory is tested by applying controlled comparison and process tracing analysis to three cases: Cambodia, South Korea, and Indonesia. These case studies demonstrate that pressures from domestic and international political audiences are determinative in states’ decision-making processes regarding capital punishment.
This article addresses the question of whether Rohingya victims of conflict-related sexual violence (crsv) in Rakhine State in 2017 have recourse to transformative reparations at the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean) Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (aichr). crsv was widespread during the August 2017 non-international armed conflict in Rakhine State. crsv also occurred in the context of longstanding subjugation of the Rohingya minority by the Government of Myanmar and Myanmar’s security forces perpetrating sexual violence against the Rohingya and other ethnic minorities. Transformative reparations for crsv are reparations intended to engender structural changes to improve victims’ circumstances and guarantee non-recurrence. An evaluation of asean’s human rights frameworks and the mandate, purposes and principles underpinning the aichr, reveals unexplored potential for transformative reparations for crsv at the aichr for Rohingya victims of crsv in Rakhine State in 2017. The asean Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance is well placed to coordinate the delivery of transformative reparations in Myanmar.
Morphological and molecular studies were used to determine the systematic
affinity of the sea urchin parasite, Echinomermella matsi. The absence of
somatic ornamentation and external openings in the parasitic juveniles and
adults, aside from a small non-functional mouth and male reproductive
opening, shows a striking degree of morphological reduction in
Echinomermella as an adaptation to a parasitic life style. A phylogenetic
analysis of E. matsi by the maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbour-joining
(NJ) methods places it within the Order Enoplida. This indicates that
Echinomermella evolved from free-living marine enoplids and is not closely
related to the Mermithidae as previously thought. The absence of a vulva and
male genital supplements, coupled with the modified spicule tips, suggest
that traumatic insemination is the standard method of mating. The
morphological modifications in Echinomermella indicate a long period of
co-evolution with sea urchins, possibly extending back to the