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  • Author or Editor: Sami Uljas x
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The present work proposes a novel analysis of Complement Clauses in Earlier Egyptian language. Contrary to previous assumptions, the grammatical organisation of these constructions is shown to be based on differentiation between Realis and Irrealis modality.
The different types of complement clauses attested in Earlier Egyptian are surveyed utilising recent linguistic research on modality and pragmatics. The discussion is based on numerous examples from the ancient texts and on comparisons with many other languages. Emerging from this investigation is a coherent and principled system for expressing Realis and Irrealis meaning in this most ancient of written languages.
This book is of notable value to Egyptologists working with texts and to all those interested in modality, grammar, and cognition.


The present article is the third part in a series of studies on the i҆-prefix found in several verb forms in the earliest Old Egyptian. It is argued that, rather like in the sḏm-f formation, in participles this element stood for an initial glottal stop used primarily with two-radical roots. By extending the stem, its introduction allowed the creation from these roots of participles whose syllabic structures conformed to the general Semitic participial template and were identical to those formed of roots with three radicals. It is further argued that the prefixed forms were later lost probably through a combination of phonological erosion and analogical pressure within the participial system. A brief discussion is also devoted to the very unclear instances of the i҆-prefix in participles from root-classes other than 2rad.

In: In the House of Heqanakht


In early Coptic stories of saints and martyrs, demons are usually prototypical adversaries and side with the devil in his battle against Christ. However, it has been noted that in magical texts of a definitely Christian social origin, demons are sometimes invoked for assistance. Such sources might perhaps be dismissed as unrepresentative of the official theological position of the Alexandrian church, but, as is shown in the present paper, demons are occasionally portrayed as champions of Christ also in more ‘respectable’ texts such as hagiographies of the later 1st millennium AD. This is argued to show that the more nuanced analysis of demons does not represent an early folk undercurrent of Egyptian Christianity, but rather reflects an alternative theological view derived from the idea that God created good and evil for a reason.

In: Vigiliae Christianae