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How to Learn Better during Visits to Museums, Science Centers, and Science Fieldtrips
The authors provide practical, research-informed, guidelines and detailed lesson plans that improve learning of chemical, physical, biological, and Earth & space sciences. The context for learning is the myriad of exciting opportunities provided by informal science institutions such as zoos, museums, space centers and the outdoors. Many such institutions seek to educate the public and inspire budding scientists. Visits outside school help students relate science to everyday life, providing strong motivation to learn science for all abilities. This book shows the key to making such visits effective, is when they are linked to classroom learning using a learning management system, drawing upon modern students’ fascination with digital technologies and mobile devices.
Chapter 2 Formal, Informal, Non-Formal Learning & Free-Choice Learning

Abstract

There are different theories of learning, that sit within paradigms, and which represent different world views. In this chapter the most common theories of learning; namely, behaviorism, constructivism, social constructivism, and socio-cultural theories, are described and contextualized, to inform best practice in Learning Experiences outside Schools (LEOS).

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 1 Enhancing Science Learning

Abstract

In this chapter different types of learning; formal, non-formal, and informal, all of which have the potential to contribute to the learning of science, are described. Whilst common in schools, evidence in the literature suggests many Learning Experiences outside Schools (LEOS) do not result in quality learning. We can, and should, integrate various forms of learning and LEOS using a learning management system.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 3 Learning Experiences outside School

Abstract

If learning is to occur during Learning Experiences outside Schools (LEOS), good pre-, during-, and post-visit planning is essential. In this chapter it is argued LEOS should complement, not replace, in-class/school learning, and should integrate formal, informal, and non-formal learning, in order to enhance learning outcomes.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 5 Integrating Formal, Informal and Non-Formal Learning Using the Digitally-Integrated Fieldtrip Inventory (DIFI)

Abstract

Blended learning offers substantial benefits for both teachers and students, and leads to more rigorous, challenging, engaging, and thought-provoking learning experiences. In this chapter a model of blended learning, the Digitally-Integrated Fieldtrip Inventory (DIFI) is presented. Like the Learner-Integrated Field Trip Inventory (LIFTI) described in , the DIFI comprises Procedural, Social & Cognitive components, all of which must be present in order to maximize the integration of different types of learning.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 4 The Learner-Integrated Field Trip Inventory (LIFTI)

Abstract

To integrate formal, non-formal, and informal learning, necessitates a learning model. In this chapter the Learner-Integrated Field Trip Inventory (LIFTI), which provides one way of integrating different types of learning, is presented. The LIFTI comprises Procedural, Social & Cognitive components, all of which must be present in order to maximize the integration of different types of learning.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 7 Learning Chemical Sciences via Learning Experiences outside School

Abstract

In this chapter lesson plans are provided for a topic related to air pollution, covering the Concept, Task, and Pedagogy to be used. The topic was ‘Demonstrate understanding of the chemistry in a technological application’, and the LEOS trip was to a nanotechnology research institute. The lesson plans include details of pre-, during- and post-visit activities for teachers, students and ISI staff.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 6 Learning Biological Sciences via Learning Experiences outside School

Abstract

In this chapter lesson plans are provided for a topic related to local ecosystems, covering the Concept, Task, and Pedagogy to be used. The topic was ‘Investigate the biological impact of an event on a New Zealand ecosystem’, and the LEOS trip was to an ecological reserve. The lesson plans include details of pre-, during- and post-visit activities for teachers, students and ISI staff.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)
Chapter 8 Learning Earth & Space Sciences via Learning Experiences outside School

Abstract

In this chapter lesson plans are provided for a topic related to astronomical cycles, covering the Concept, Task, and Pedagogy to be used. The topic was ‘Demonstrate understanding of the effects of astronomical cycles on planet Earth’, and the LEOS trip was to a planetarium. The lesson plans include details of pre-, during- and post-visit activities for teachers, students and ISI staff.

In: Enhancing Science Learning through Learning Experiences outside School (LEOS)