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Sandra Fernandes

Since 2004, the strategic dimension of the eu’s relationship with Moscow has been enhanced. Countries of the former Soviet sphere brought new political dimensions alongside the Union’s growing assertion as a global actor. eu post-enlargement ambitions also corresponded to a greater strategic orientation towards its neighborhood, materialized in its European Neighborhood Policy (enp) and a new mode of relationship with Moscow. Academic literature has been focusing mainly on eu’s internal adjustments concerning the impact of the Eastern enlargement on its approaches towards Russia, surrounded by the competing views on how to deal with Moscow. This chapter aims instead at focusing on specific policy outcomes, as compared to the initial stated goals advanced by Brussels at the time of enlargement (i.e. up to circa 2008). We argue that already existing tensions and issues have been sharpened in eu-Russia relations but that main priorities have been pursued, such as trade relations. We also argue that the empowerment of both actors is an additional variable that explains the impact of enlargement on a more difficult relationship with Russia. Considering a key eu document from 2004, we analyze the effects of enlargement on eu policies towards Russia and what (and how) core policies have been implemented in the last ten years prior to the Ukrainian crisis.

Series:

Sandra Fernandes

Since 2004, the strategic dimension of the eu’s relationship with Moscow has been enhanced. Countries of the former Soviet sphere brought new political dimensions alongside the Union’s growing assertion as a global actor. eu post-enlargement ambitions also corresponded to a greater strategic orientation towards its neighborhood, materialized in its European Neighborhood Policy (enp) and a new mode of relationship with Moscow. Academic literature has been focusing mainly on eu’s internal adjustments concerning the impact of the Eastern enlargement on its approaches towards Russia, surrounded by the competing views on how to deal with Moscow. This chapter aims instead at focusing on specific policy outcomes, as compared to the initial stated goals advanced by Brussels at the time of enlargement (i.e. up to circa 2008). We argue that already existing tensions and issues have been sharpened in eu-Russia relations but that main priorities have been pursued, such as trade relations. We also argue that the empowerment of both actors is an additional variable that explains the impact of enlargement on a more difficult relationship with Russia. Considering a key eu document from 2004, we analyze the effects of enlargement on eu policies towards Russia and what (and how) core policies have been implemented in the last ten years prior to the Ukrainian crisis.

Sandra Fernandes, Maria Assunção Flores and Rui M. Lima

Sandra Fernandes, Maria Assunção Flores and Rui M. Lima

The Bologna Process has introduced a number of changes in Higher Education institutions, namely in curricula restructuring and in new methodologies of teaching and assessing, amongst others. Also of importance is the need to improve student achievement which has to focus not only upon the development of technical competencies, but also upon the development of transversal competencies. This paper aims to give an overview of an ongoing and broader piece of research on impact assessment of Project-Led Education (PLE) on students’ learning, and its contribution to the improvement of teaching and learning in Higher Education. It is based on a longitudinal approach with first year Industrial Management and Engineering students, who participated in PLE experiences. For this, the CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) Evaluation Model was used as a framework for evaluating the impact of the programme (Stufflebeam, 2003). Data were collected through qualitative and quantitative research methods, according to the four dimensions of evaluation in CIPP. Findings suggest that the CIPP Model provided a broad understanding of the evaluation process, thus linking the evaluation and decision-making processes. Data collected from students, in regard to PLE processes and outcomes, showed a stronger articulation between theory and practice, which improved learning and increased student motivation. The project was considered a good way to develop not only technical skills, but also important transversal competencies such as project management, problem solving, communication skills and teamwork. Greater involvement of students in the assessment process and the need to clarify and share a common understanding of the tutor’s role, mostly amongst tutors themselves, were some of the key issues for further improvement that emerged from the data collected.

Rui M. Lima, Dinis Carvalho, Rui M. Sousa, Anabela Alves, Francisco Moreira, Diana Mesquita and Sandra Fernandes

Rui M. Lima, José Dinis-Carvalho, Rui M. Sousa, Anabela C. Alves, Francisco Moreira, Sandra Fernandes and Diana Mesquita