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In: Multiple Mediterranean Realities
In: Cultural Brokers at Mediterranean Courts in the Middle Ages


Both Liudprand of Cremona and the Western Empress Theophano are well-known key figures in the history of Byzantine-Western relations, and both thus make the later 10th century a period of focus in this field of study. The following age of the Salian emperors has been less studied in this respect, however, at least not in a comprehensive way. For this reason this article gives a chronological overview of the development of political relations between Byzantium, the regnum Italiae, and the Western emperors from the early 10th to the early 12th century. In most cases, these contacts reveal an Italian emphasis, such as the Western emperors’ campaigns in the central and southern parts of the Apennine Peninsula. Besides diplomatic envoys (like Liudprand), who clearly belonged to one side, other agents of this relationship are better characterized by their position between the two empires, such as the Lombard princes in southern Italy.

In: A Companion to Byzantium and the West, 900-1204