The role of private actors in the offshore energy industry has expanded with regard to both the law-making processes and the implementation of the relevant legal framework. This article critically examines the role private actors are playing in the offshore energy sector in order to delineate some trends in the ways in which private actors act and interact at the international level. It focuses in particular on instances where there is a delegation of regulatory powers or the implementation duties from the international and supranational level to the private actors. The article ultimately strives to identify which model(s) of participation by private actors the offshore energy sector is developing.
This article analyses the practice of Mediterranean States with regard to search and rescue (SAR) operations that has repeatedly given rise to much dispute. Its particular focus is on the existing disagreements concerning the interpretation and implementation of international obligations. Mediterranean States diverge on the modalities for managing SAR zones, and on the obligations of the state in whose SAR zone the rescue operation took place. The article also examines the existing attempts at cooperation and coordination among Mediterranean States and the systems of exchange of information and means created by the European Union (EU). The impact of SAR zones and activities on the relations between Mediterranean States are considered in the light of the analysis of state practice. It finds that SAR operations can be both an opportunity for cooperation as well as a source of conflict.
Natalie Dobson and Seline Trevisanut
The effects of global warming in the Arctic region present a particular challenge for the European Union (EU), which seeks to profile itself as a leader in responding to climate change. Although the EU strives to prioritize climate protection, the Arctic region remains one of the EU’s major suppliers of energy, particularly oil and gas. The EU must thus strike a balance between climate change mitigation and adaptation, and energy security. The present article analyses the developments of the EU position in this field, particularly in light of the COP 21 negotiations, and the more recent 2016 Integrated European Union Policy for the Arctic. In doing so it seeks to explore to what extent the EU truly is fulfilling its own leadership aspirations in the field of climate change and energy in the Arctic.