Two texts that raise problems for Alexander of Aphrodisias' theory of universals are examined. De anima 90.2-8 appears to suggest that universals are dependent on thought for their existence; this raises questions about the status both of universals and of forms. It is suggested that the passage is best interpreted as indicating that universals are dependent on thought only for their being recognised as universals. The last sentence of Quaestio 1.11 seems to assert that if the universal did not exist no individual would exist, thereby contradicting Alexander's position elsewhere. This seems to be a slip resulting from the fact that species with only one member are the exception rather than the rule.
Historically deaf people have been denied educational access to the health professions due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon a cohort of deaf people and their experience of accessing professional nurse education. The aim was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using Deaf qualified nurses and how they challenged disabling barriers within the majority hearing clinical community. The study used thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition focused and supported by Jurgen Habermas’ critical theory and Paulo Freire’s critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses’ unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that not only support deaf people but could also facilitate people from other marginalised groups into health care professions. The findings are seen from and historical perspective of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of social institutions such as health and education. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the patients / clients, nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for their staff from linguistic minorities and the impact of barriers to education and the therapeutic environment. There are now 12 signing Deaf nurses on the UK professional register for nurses and midwives. This is a significant turn in the history of professional nursing. The implications for the access to professional employment for such a marginalised group remains vulnerable and sensitive to the ebb and flow of inclusive and exclusive practises within society’s institutions.
John Glucker, "A Platonic Cento in Cicero", Phronesis 44 (1999) 30-44, argues that the account of the mind's experiences at Cicero, De divinatione 1.115 derives from an unknown Platonist's combination of Plato, Meno 81c5-d1 and Republic 10 614d3-615a5. G.'s connection of what is said by Cicero with these two passages of Plato is persuasive; but in concentrating on the surface references to souls' memory of their experiences in previous lives the Ciceronian account fails to do justice to the underlying significance of both passages. It is also questionable whether an unknown Platonist needs to be invoked as a source; the interpretation of the two Platonic passages could be Cicero's own.