Shawkat Alam, Pundarik Mukhopadhya and Md. Rizwanul Islam

In 2007, Australia and India began a joint feasibility study to assess the prospect of an Australia-India Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Agriculture will be a crucial negotiation point in any such FTA. Agriculture is a key sector of the Australian economy, and an important and lucrative export, with more than half of the sector’s output exported. The scope of increased domestic demand in agriculture is limited for a significant segment of the sector. Therefore, sustained growth of the industry requires new export markets to be opened. This paper will analyse the prospects of boosting agricultural exports from Australia via the proposed FTA. This paper will assess the tariff and non-tariff barriers in agriculture in India and critically assess how an FTA could reduce these barriers. The benefits of increased liberalisation of agricultural trade in India will also be discussed to demonstrate the mutually beneficial opportunities that reduced trade barriers could provide.

Shawkat Alam and Sheikh Noor Mohammad


The ecosystem approach emerged in the international environmental realm to promote equity and justice for both people and nature. It provides a set of mechanisms, including equitable benefit sharing; conservation and sustainable use; adaptive management; and participatory practices. This article explores how the ecosystem approach that is used in natural resource management shares synergies with notions of environmental justice, including distributional justice, procedural justice and justice-as-recognition. It also explores how the ecosystem approach responds to two additional principles of environmental justice that are specific to environmental disciplines, namely, intergenerational equity and the precautionary principle. The article illustrates the complementarity between the ecosystem approach and environmental justice through practical examples and argues that environmental justice can be promoted by utilizing the ecosystem approach as a vehicle for policy-makers.

Sheikh Mohammad Towhidul Karim, Shawkat Alam, George F Tomossy and Abdullah Al Faruque

This article examines how a right to health, expressed as a minimum core obligation under international law, can be advanced within the constitutional framework of Bangladesh. Reinforcing this right is important within the post-2015 Development Agenda under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Drawing upon examples of other jurisdictions to develop minimum core obligations of a right to health, it is argued that courts have a key role to play in actively enforcing a right to health to benefit poor, vulnerable and marginalised people. This article proposes that judicial adherence through interpretation of domestic and international law may provide the best mechanism to promote a right to health as a minimum core obligation in Bangladesh.