Video images of pigeons were used to examine the degree to which these images are equivalent to real live conspecifics by analyzing the natural behaviors of pigeons in the presence of each stimulus. Three aspects of courtship display (i.e. bowing, tail-dragging, and vocalizations) were selected and the display duration for each was measured. When videotaped images of female pigeons were presented as stimuli, the display duration by male pigeons was not significantly different from that for the live birds. In contrast, the subjects showed much shorter, or no, displays to the video images of a non-pigeon bird (cockatoo) and an empty chamber. The results suggest that the video images of pigeons contained necessary information to trigger the courtship behaviors. Furthermore, the present study examined which features of the video images were critical for triggering the displays by manipulating the images. Thus, the subjects' behaviors were more vigorous (1) when video images were in motion rather than still, and (2) when the head-only region was visible rather than the body-only region. These results suggest that motion and facial/head characteristics are important features. Collectively, the results indicate that the use of video images as stimuli and courtship displays as measures provide a useful method to study the visual recognition of conspecifics in birds.

Nanako Shimizu


It is quite often argued in the legal and political literatures that Asian nations tend to be more protective of their national sovereignty and thus are often reluctant to follow universal rules or principles provided in international legal materials and texts. Does this “conservative” image of Asian nations correctly reflect the national practices and academic literature of East Asian nations? How do we East Asians perceive the UN collective security system invented at the price of two catastrophic world wars in the 20th century? And why do East Asians need international law to keep peace and security in this region? By trying to find answers to these questions, this article contemplates what role international law will be able to play for the maintenance of peace and security in East Asia.

Karli Shimizu

From the late eighteenth century to WWII, shrine Shintō came to be seen as a secular institution by the government, academics, and activists in Japan (Isomae 2014; Josephson 2012, Maxey 2014). However, research thus far has largely focused on the political and academic discourses surrounding the development of this idea. This article contributes to this discussion by examining how a prominent modern Shintō shrine, Kashihara Jingū founded in 1890, was conceived of and treated as secular. It also explores how Kashihara Jingū communicated an alternate sense of space and time in line with a new Japanese secularity. This Shintō-based secularity, which located shrines as public, historical, and modern, was formulated in antagonism to the West and had an influence that extended across the Japanese sphere. The shrine also serves as a case study of how the modern political system of secularism functioned in a non-western nation-state.