Video images of pigeons were used to examine the degree to which these images are equivalent to real live conspecifics by analyzing the natural behaviors of pigeons in the presence of each stimulus. Three aspects of courtship display (i.e. bowing, tail-dragging, and vocalizations) were selected and the display duration for each was measured. When videotaped images of female pigeons were presented as stimuli, the display duration by male pigeons was not significantly different from that for the live birds. In contrast, the subjects showed much shorter, or no, displays to the video images of a non-pigeon bird (cockatoo) and an empty chamber. The results suggest that the video images of pigeons contained necessary information to trigger the courtship behaviors. Furthermore, the present study examined which features of the video images were critical for triggering the displays by manipulating the images. Thus, the subjects' behaviors were more vigorous (1) when video images were in motion rather than still, and (2) when the head-only region was visible rather than the body-only region. These results suggest that motion and facial/head characteristics are important features. Collectively, the results indicate that the use of video images as stimuli and courtship displays as measures provide a useful method to study the visual recognition of conspecifics in birds.
Characteristics of mathematics teacher education in Japan are described with a focus on particular aspects of the learning process of teachers throughout their professional life. First, an outline of the Japanese system of pre-service training, adoption, and in-service training of teachers in mathematics are described in general. Then aspects of mathematics teacher education in Japan are discussed with a focus on the opportunities for participating in lesson study, which is a common element in Japanese educational practices and takes place in various contexts of professional development of both preservice and inservice teachers. Particular attention is given to the opportunities for developing pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics through the careful analysis of teaching materials, or “Kyozai-kenkyu” in Japanese, which include anticipating students’ approach to the topic to be taught in the classroom. Then, the role of lesson plans not only for planning and discussing lessons but also as a “vehicle” for learning process of teachers are examined. The need for maintaining the continuity between preservice and in-service training is emphasized.