Bian Jianlin and Xie Shu

The Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in 1978 marked the initiation of the policy of reform and opening up in China, beginning a new chapter in the construction of a socialist legal system. The first Chinese criminal procedure law was promulgated the following year and was revised twice in 1996 and 2012. Although remarkable progress has been made, the level of the rule of law in China’s criminal procedure must still be improved to meet the goal of modernizing the criminal rule of law.

Yuzhou Gong, Guocheng Shu, Feng Huang, Liuyang He, Cheng Li and Feng Xie

Abstract

The Taliang crocodile newt, Liangshantriton taliangensis, which is endemic to south-western China, is a rare salamandrid species with a distinct evolutionary history. Using combined field observations and captive experiments, we studied the courtship behaviour and male sexual interference of this species and composed a complete ethogram of its courtship behaviour. Unlike previous reports on sperm transfer, male L. taliangensis did not deposit spermatophores during ventral amplexus and females did not pick up sperm masses in this courtship phase. Sperm transfer was only performed during arm-hooking pin-wheel circling, which distinguishes L. taliangensis from Tylototriton species and supports the validity of genus Liangshantriton. Whether L. taliangensis shows bimodality in sperm transfer needs to be explored in additional populations. In the presence of sexual competitors, male L. taliangensis adjusted the duration of their behaviour. We found that males with longer snout-vent length, heavier mass, and higher tailfins may have an advantage in intrasexual competition.