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As individualized education increases in popularity, homeschooling likewise garners more attention from Chinese middle-class families. Over the past decade, the number of families choosing homeschooling has increased annually. However, most homeschooling Chinese Protestants wish to focus on the cultivation of beliefs, character, and values in the education of their children. In their eyes, homeschooling provides the best way to transmit cultural heritage.

Homeschooling brings with it many challenges and difficulties in the daily lives of Chinese Protestants: cross-pressure from traditional Chinese culture systems, opposition from parents and other family members, conflicts with mainstream educational institutions, and power struggles with Chinese secular authorities. Moreover, educational resources, guides, and materials for Chinese homeschooling families are scarce, thus leaving homeschooling families to grope in the dark. The biggest deterrent to them is the disqualification of their children from taking college entrance examinations because homeschooled children lack the requisite status to enroll as official students. Thus, the role conflicts among Chinese, Christian, pariah, and legal deviant statuses pose considerable tensions for parents and children.

This paper offers insight into these issues through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 respondents from urban Chinese Protestant families that had previously been screened through a brief survey instrument.

In: Journal of Chinese Theology


Not only are vessel pits vital for the passage of sap into adjacent cells, but their anatomical morphology is also used as a tool to identify bamboo species. However, detailed studies comparing the pits’ structural parameters in culms of species with three rhizome types: sympodial bamboo, amphipodial bamboo, and monopodial bamboo, are lacking. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were conducted to obtain the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vessel pits in sympodial, amphipodial and monopodial bamboos, from twelve bamboo species in eight genera. Sympodial bamboos possess small and ovoid bordered pits, whereas amphipodial bamboos contain an abundance of slit-like pits, with the greatest pit membrane length occurring in the vessel wall. Both minute and large pit sizes can be found in monopodial bamboos. This study identified the first compound pits ever to be found in a bamboo species and these were found to occur more frequently in amphipodial and monopodial bamboos than in sympodial bamboos. Using the distribution frequency of the pit chamber’s horizontal diameter, we were able to determine pit size as being either small, medium or large. The striking differences in the vessel pits’ qualitative and quantitative characteristics could be the result of different climate and environmental factors.

In: IAWA Journal


The flow of xylem sap in bamboo is closely associated with metaxylem vessels and the pits in their cell walls. These pits are essential components of the water-transport system and are key intercellular pathways for transverse permeation of treatment agents related to utilization. Observations of metaxylem vessels and pits in moso bamboo culm internodes were carried out using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to examine mature bamboo fractures and resin casts. The results showed that bordered pits were distributed in relation to adjacent cell types with most pits between vessels and parenchyma cells and few pits between vessels and fibers of the bundle sheath. The pit arrangement was mainly opposite to alternate with apertures ranging from oval, flattened elliptical, or slit-like to coalescent. The vertical dimensions of inner apertures and outer apertures of the pits were about 0.9–2.7 μm and 1.1–3.8 μm, respectively. According to the relative position, and size difference between the inner apertures and their borders, the bordered pit shapes were categorized into three types, namely PI, PII and PIII (Fig. 3C). Half-bordered pit pairs were observed between vessels and direct contact parenchyma cells. Most vessel elements possessed simple perforation plates.

In: IAWA Journal