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Regulating Advance Directives in International and Comparative Perspective
This volume gathers the contributions of leading researchers in the fields of bioethics, medical law and human rights. By providing an interdisciplinary reading of advance directives regulation against the background of European and International law, this book aims to offer new insights into the most controversial legal issues surrounding the theme of dignity and autonomy at the end of life. Cross-cultural perspectives from Europe, the Americas, Australia and China offer a comparative analysis of legal approaches to end-of-life decision-making and care, including the hotly debated issues of euthanasia and assisted suicide, also giving an account of recent developments in domestic legislation and jurisprudence. Special focus is placed on the Italian legal system and its ongoing discussion on advance directives regulation.
In: Yearbook of International Disaster Law Online
In: Self-Determination, Dignity and End-of-Life Care
In: Self-Determination, Dignity and End-of-Life Care
In: Self-Determination, Dignity and End-of-Life Care


Since Nuremberg, the ethics of scientific research involving human beings has been for decades the source of concern and controversy. Nowadays, profit-driven experimentation sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry has progressively migrated to the South, turning into a widespread phenomenon imbued with ethical challenges and dilemmas. The protection of vulnerable communities from the risks of unethical behaviour and human exploitation, often associated with the outsourcing of clinical trials in developing countries, calls for respect of internationally agreed standards. This chapter argues that massive experiments conducted in disregard of universal bioethical principles and human rights may amount, in their cruellest forms, to crimes against humanity under international criminal law. It also suggests that, in such cases, the International Criminal Court would have jurisdiction over a broad range of liable individuals, including public officials of host and sponsoring States, physicians and researchers acting in their private capacity, as well as officers and directors of pharmaceutical corporations.

In: Biolaw and International Criminal Law
In: Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development from Rio to Rio+20
In: Yearbook of International Disaster Law Online