The deeply worrying prospect of a global catastrophe frequently operates as the conceptual backdrop of rhetoric meant to convey the dangers of climate change. In recent years, however, concerns about environmental risks have given rise to more detailed dystopian constructions of a future in which climate change overwhelmingly shapes and propels social conflict. Such forecasts imparting tremendous causal power to climate change are articulated through frightening warnings about impending ‘climate wars,’ ‘climate-driven conflict,’ and other speculation about the potential for widespread lawlessness and violence. Although such warnings are often made by campaigners trying to raise awareness about climate change, their Hobbesian character has also found a receptive audience among defence professionals who perceive climate change as emerging national security threat. Military think thanks, for instance, have been developing scenarios of a future in which climate change produces terrorism, political radicalization, and internationally-destabilising levels of mass human migration. This chapter argues that this climatic turn in defence policy discourse has emerged not only out of the need to (re)legitimate hegemonic power, but also because catastrophic rhetoric about climate change invites such securitized ways of seeing the future. To explore these concerns, I consider the interplay between popular catastrophic rhetoric and the emerging field of ‘climate security.’
Focusing on Australia, Canada, and New Zealand,
Religious Education and the Anglo-World historiographically examines the relationship between empire and religious education. The analysis centres on three formative eras in the development of religious education in each case: firstly, the foundational moments of publicly funded education in the mid- to late nineteenth centuries when policy makers created largely Protestant systems of religious education, and frequently denied Roman Catholics funding for private education. Secondly, the period from 1880-1960 during which campaigns to strengthen religious education emerged in each context. Finally, the era of decolonisation from the 1960s through the 1980s when publicly funded religious education was challenged by the loss of Britishness as a central ideal, and Roman Catholics found unprecedented success in achieving state aid in many cases. By bringing these disparate national literatures into conversation with one another, Stephen Jackson calls for a greater transnational approach to the study of religious education in the Anglo-World.
DNA molecular data are used to generate a phylogeny for the micropezid subfamily Taeniapterinae. Thirty-two taeniapterine species were sampled, including 10 of the 20 New World genera recognized by Steyskal, as well as one genus formerly treated as a synonym of Poecilotylus Hennig (Hemichaeta Steyskal). Five species from the Micropezinae were included as outgroups. A total DNA dataset of 4705 bp, including mitochondrial genes (12S and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI)) and nuclear coding genes (wingless and CAD), was analysed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The genus Taeniaptera Macquart was found to be non-monophyletic with respect to the remainder of the Taeniapterini analysed here. Taeniaptera is restricted to the Taeniaptera trivittata Macquart species group, Mitromyia Cresson is resurrected to contain the Taeniaptera grata (Wulp) species group, and Paragrallomyia Hendel is resurrected to contain most species previously considered Taeniaptera. Poecilotylus is recognized as a paraphyletic group awaiting further research.