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Edited by Stephen Miller

The essays in this volume concentrate on imperial conflict. Until recently, most historians of empire have concerned themselves with economic issues. More recently, scholarship has turned to social and cultural aspects of Empire. The role of the military, however, continues to be largely ignored. Historians have traditionally viewed the military as an arm of the civil power, an institution which did not create policy but faithfully obeyed the directives given to it. These essays show that indeed the military thought for itself: its officers made policy, introduced new strategies and tactics, and utilized the services of local settlers and indigenes to pursue the interests of empire, and the rank and file informed ideas in Great Britain concerning Africa and Africans.
Contributors are Edward M. Spiers, Ian F.W. Beckett, Bill Nasson, John Laband, Paul Thompson, Fransjohan Pretorius, Tim Stapleton, Ian van der Waag, James Thomas, Jeffrey Meriwether, and Bruce Vandervort.
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Stephen Miller

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This intervention takes up the depiction of agriculture in Henry Heller’s essays on ancien régime France. The argument of this intervention is that rural social relations did not evolve according to a capitalist logic. Rather, given market opportunities, landlords, both noble and bourgeois, sought to enhance their power over the peasantry, extract additional labour from the families of smallholders, and gain profit for the purpose of adding to their political authority.

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Stephen Miller

Ralph Kingston, in Bureaucrats and Bourgeois Society, argues that government employees constituted the core of the French bourgeoisie in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The book lends support to the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, not as a breakthrough of a capitalist bourgeoisie, but as a conflict originating in a social structure whose economic surplus was appropriated politically. This review posits that the peasants’ subsistence strategies constrained the economic evolution of the country and led well-to-do families to invest in shares of governmental authority and careers in the civil service rather than in private enterprises. The slow economic growth and pursuit of state offices represent underlying continuities between the Old Regime and the nineteenth century. The notable changes resulted from the popular uprisings of 1789–93 and the rationalisation of the state apparatus during the revolutionary decade.

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Stephen M. Miller

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Iva Katzarska-Miller, Carole A. Barnsley and Stephen Reysen

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In four studies we examine the associations between religiosity, global citizenship identification, and various kinds of values (e.g., exclusionary, prosocial). Across the studies, general trends emerged showing that religiosity is unrelated to global citizenship identification, and positively related to exclusionary values (e.g., sexual prejudice, ethnocentrism, restricting outgroups). However, examination of the varied motivations to be religious (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, quest) showed that quest religious motivation is positively related to global citizenship identification, as well as inclusionary and prosocial values. Furthermore, quest religious motivation was found to positively influence the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification.