Edited by Stephen Miller
Contributors are Edward M. Spiers, Ian F.W. Beckett, Bill Nasson, John Laband, Paul Thompson, Fransjohan Pretorius, Tim Stapleton, Ian van der Waag, James Thomas, Jeffrey Meriwether, and Bruce Vandervort.
This intervention takes up the depiction of agriculture in Henry Heller’s essays on ancien régime France. The argument of this intervention is that rural social relations did not evolve according to a capitalist logic. Rather, given market opportunities, landlords, both noble and bourgeois, sought to enhance their power over the peasantry, extract additional labour from the families of smallholders, and gain profit for the purpose of adding to their political authority.
Ralph Kingston, in Bureaucrats and Bourgeois Society, argues that government employees constituted the core of the French bourgeoisie in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The book lends support to the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, not as a breakthrough of a capitalist bourgeoisie, but as a conflict originating in a social structure whose economic surplus was appropriated politically. This review posits that the peasants’ subsistence strategies constrained the economic evolution of the country and led well-to-do families to invest in shares of governmental authority and careers in the civil service rather than in private enterprises. The slow economic growth and pursuit of state offices represent underlying continuities between the Old Regime and the nineteenth century. The notable changes resulted from the popular uprisings of 1789–93 and the rationalisation of the state apparatus during the revolutionary decade.
Miller, Steven E. and Stephen Van Evera
Iva Katzarska-Miller, Carole A. Barnsley and Stephen Reysen
In four studies we examine the associations between religiosity, global citizenship identification, and various kinds of values (e.g., exclusionary, prosocial). Across the studies, general trends emerged showing that religiosity is unrelated to global citizenship identification, and positively related to exclusionary values (e.g., sexual prejudice, ethnocentrism, restricting outgroups). However, examination of the varied motivations to be religious (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, quest) showed that quest religious motivation is positively related to global citizenship identification, as well as inclusionary and prosocial values. Furthermore, quest religious motivation was found to positively influence the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification.