The Iron Age capital on the Kerkenes Dağ is almost certainly the place Herodotus called Pteria, and which was captured by Croesus, the last king of Lydia. The city, enclosed by a seven-kilometer circuit of strong stone defenses, was looted and burnt. Excavations have uncovered two monumental gateways. One of these, the Cappadocia Gate, controlled movements through the city wall while the other led into the Palatial Complex situated on the southern ridge within the city. The plans of these two gateways have much in common with one another, such as towers or tower-like platforms flanking a wide stone paved passage leading up to double-leaf doors housed in monumental wooden façades. In the Cappadocia Gate were an aniconic granite stele and a second stele in the form of a semi-iconic idol carved from soft white stone and set up on a built stepped monument. Graffiti at the front of the Gateway appear to depict several types of idol and stele. At the Monumental Entrance to the Palatial Complex were found an aniconic granite stele associated with a “libation hole” and, on the flanking platforms, rows of large, double-faced semi-iconic idols. This paper describes and compares these monuments and their settings, and then discusses their Phrygian characteristics. A concluding section examines some of the implications of these discoveries for the spread of Phrygian culture to the east of the Kızılırmak after the time of Midas the Great.

In: The Adventure of the Illustrious Scholar
Author: James Summers
Peoples and International Law is a detailed survey of the law of self-determination with a focus on the concept of nations and peoples. It engages with different aspects of this law with particular emphasis on the drafting and implementation of international instruments. The second edition includes new coverage of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the African and Arab charters. It considers recent practice by the Human Rights Committee, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights dealing with the emerging political, economic and environmental aspects of the right. The book looks at the interaction of international law, nationalism and liberalism in theories of nationhood and self-determination, as well as, the historical development of the right and the decisions of international bodies. Lastly, it examines practice in this area, including new developments in remedial independence and international territorial administration.

Also available in hardback.
The Declaration of Independence, the Advisory Opinion and Implications for Statehood, Self-Determination and Minority Rights
Editor: James Summers
Kosovo’s declaration of independence on 17 February 2008 has had a profound and polarising impact on international relations. While over a third of the world’s countries have recognised Kosovo, others have been concerned that it sets a precedent for secessionist minorities. Indeed, Kosovo appears to have been used as a precedent in the Russia-Georgia conflict over South Ossetia. The book brings together contributions from leading academics on the legal aspects of Kosovo and, in particular, the International Court of Justice’s Advisory Opinion of 2010. The result is an extensive examination from a variety of experts on Kosovo and its impact on international law.
In: Mnemosyne
Author: James Summers


The right of peoples to self-determination occupies a prominent position in a number of key international instruments, like the Human Rights Covenants and the United Nations Charter. Yet, despite this, many questions remain about the right in international law. This article is an analysis of the right which will look at its language in relation to its practical application. Its focus is on self-determination as a rhetoric, which, it is argued, is used to legitimize political activities by presenting those activities in terms of peoples and their self-realization. It will be further argued that as political rhetoric self-determination is most likely to be invoked in the institutions that direct and provide a focus for political life. This produces the paradox in the right. Although the rhetoric of self-determination suggests that peoples and their characteristics provide the basis for political institutions, the right, in fact, seems to be shaped in large part by those institutions. This, in turn, has important implications for how self-determination should be looked at in relation to other legal principles.

In: Nordic Journal of International Law
Author: Kyle Summers


1. Mating and aggressive behaviour was observed in four species of dendrobatid frogs in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica: Colostethus nubicola, Colostethus talamancae, Phyllobates vittatus and Dendrobates granuliferus. 2. Males of both species of Colostethus were more likely to respond to call playbacks than male P. vittatus or D. granuliferus. Male D. granuliferus were less likely to be found calling than males of the other species. Conspecific male-male aggression was observed in P. vittatus, but not in the other species. 3. Females were more active during courtship in P. vittatus. Female-female aggression was observed on one occasion in P. vittatus. Females were more likely to reject males than the reverse in all species. 4. These observations suggest that sexual conflict occurs in P. vittatus, but not in C. nubicola or C. talamancae.

In: Behaviour