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Rekonstruktion und Tradition eines hurritisch-hethitischen Rituals aus Boğazköy/Ḫattuša
The Ritual of Aštu, a text found at the Hittite Capital of Hattuša, shows strong influence from southern Anatolia and describes a Hurrian-Hittite ritual against witchcraft and sorcery. The following study provides detailed philological treatment of the 13th-century fragments found at Hattuša, from which the ritual is known, including transcription, translation, and commentary of all manuscripts, as well as special emphasis on the Hurrian passages of the ritual. Reconstruction of the more fragmentary sections is undertaken through comparison to other rituals. The study concludes with an analysis of Anatolian, Luwian, and Kizzuwatnaian influences evident in the ritual, and affords, in sum, valuable additions to the study of the nature of Hittite archives, and the development of ritual texts.

“I firmly believe that works like this are essential to creating the dialogue that is necessary for the progress of our understanding of Hurrian. Görke’s treatment of the various texts and her discussions of many aspects of the ritual will prove very useful to scholars working on Hurro-Hittite religion.” Dennis R.M. Campbell, San Francisco State University


Excavations in Boğazköy, ancient Ḫattuša, in Central Anatolia, brought thousands of clay tablets to light, which tell the story of the Hittites, a people that lived in Anatolia in the second half of the second millennium BC. Almost all of these texts were found in archives of the royal court, many among these being official documents that describe the national cults of the Hittite gods. Via these cults, the king and queen maintained a good relationship between the gods and royal family, and also affirmed the gods’ protection over the land. The present article tries to shed light on another side of Hittite religion, which does not center on the national cult but rather that of the personal gods of Hittite kings as well as the family religion of the Hittite population. Moreover, it strives to approach the issue of individuality among the Hittites and tries to understand and interpret the non-religious official documents of Hittite kings. For these purposes especially those of Telipinu, Muršili II and Ḫattušili III, in their political setting will be considered.

In: Religionspraxis und Individualität


This paper deals with the question of how to interpret scribal errors. The first part tries to find explanations for inconsistencies in the determination of personal names focusing on the text genre and taking into account the study of the whole tablet. The second part analyzes the Gerichtsprotokoll KUB 13.35+, also taking into account the format and layout of the tablet.

In: Hrozný and Hittite
In: Luwian Identities


This article considers the relationship of Hittite festival rituals and mythical accounts, based on the mythical narrative of the feast of the sun god, in which the invited deities are not satiated despite sufficient food and drink. It is shown that the myths of the disappearing and returning deities were originally invocations or supplications (mugawar) incorporated into ritual acts that were intended to summon a deity. From the Middle Hittite period onward, rituals for invoking deities (mukeššar) seem to have been distinguished from ritual offerings to deities, which could then be called festival rituals (EZEN₄). In the process, an occasion-bound invocation of a deity due owing to some emergency situation may have been reinterpreted as an invocation to guarantee the deity’s presence, which in the further course lost its significance for being written down while the ritual descriptions gained in importance. At the same time, the invocations may have been literarily processed and expanded, e.g., by southeast Anatolian descriptions of rites of evocation.

In: Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions
Die Bedeutung von Persönlicher Frömmigkeit und Family Religion für das Personkonzept in der Antike
Der Band stellt die anthropologische Frage nach Transformationen des Personkonzepts von den vorderorientalischen Hochkulturen bis zur Spätantike in einem kulturübergreifenden und religionsgeschichtlichen Horizont. Nachdem die Artikulation von personaler Identität, von Individualität und von »inneren Tiefen« in der Vergangenheit oft erst in der Linie Platon – Paulus – Augustin angesetzt, sie der vorgriechischen Antike aber oft abgesprochen wurde, fragt der Band danach, welche Religionspraxis, gerade auch jenseits des offiziellen Kultes, in den Kulturen der vorhellenistischen Zeit für den Ausdruck von personaler Identität oder von Individualität von Bedeutung waren, was sich mit den Schriften eines Platon, Paulus oder Augustin tatsächlich geändert hat und welche anderen Faktoren in der Religionspraxis hierfür von Bedeutung waren.