Phenotypic plasticity is the capacity for individuals to modify their phenotype in response to environmental changes. For example, variation in external and cranial characters have been documented in some small mammals and can result in controversy over classification, which has been the case for tree shrews for decades. However, there are few reports about external and cranial character variation in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Here, such character variants of tree shrews were documented for 11 different sampling sites (Hainan, Daxin, Leye, Xingyi, Hekou, Kunming, Xichang, Dali, Pianma, Tengchong, Mengla) and for laboratory samples. The results showed that external and cranial characters of tree shrews significantly differed among regions, Hainan and Daxin populations were significantly larger than those of other populations, and Leye, Xingyi, Kunming and Xichang populations were smaller. The variation may be related to the habitat of tree shrews and our data may initiate new interest in morphological variants in small mammals. The presented detailed examination of the morphometric characters in tree shrews, and the exposed significant morphological differences among tree shrews, are expected to help in confirming their classification status.
Venture capital (VC) can promote the innovation of invested enterprises through financial support, social networking, and intellectual capital. Based on data of Chinese listed companies from 2003 to 2016, this study, firstly, compares the impact of government and private VC on enterprise innovation using Possion regression, and applies the ITCV method and Negative Binomial Regression for Robustness Examination, then, explores the relationship between their shareholding percentage and enterprise innovation with threshold test. The results show that: the performance of private VC is significantly positive and in line. With the increasing shareholding percentage of private VC, the innovation of invested enterprises increases. The overall performance of government VC, however, is not significant, and the shareholding percentage of government VC also has no significant impact on the innovation of invested companies. Additional testing revealed that a “threshold effect” however exists in the impact of the shareholding percentage of government VC on innovation: within a certain range, the higher the shareholding percentage, the more significant the impact on innovations becomes, but beyond that range, the percentage is inversely related to innovation.
The relationship between the cell wall ultrastructure of waterlogged wooden archeological artifacts and the state of water bound to cell walls and free in voids is fundamental to develop consolidating and drying technologies. Herein, a lacquer-wooden ware and a boat-coffin dating 4th century BC were selected as representative artifacts to study. Wood anatomy results indicated that they belonged to Idesia sp. and Machilus sp., respectively. They exhibited a typical spongy texture, as revealed by SEM observations, and their water contents had increased significantly. Solid state NMR, Py-GC/MS, imaging FTIR microscopy and 2D-XRD results demonstrated that the deterioration resulted from the partial cleavages of both polysaccharide backbones and cellulose hydrogen-bonding networks, almost complete elimination of acetyl side chains of hemicellulose, the partial depletion of β-O-4 interlinks, as well as oxidation and demethylation/demethoxylation of lignin. These further caused the disoriented arrangement of crystalline cellulose, and the decrease in cellulose crystallite dimensions and crystallinity. In consequence, mesopores and macropores formed, and the number of moisture-adsorbed sites and their accessibility increased. Moreover, results on free water deduced by the changes of pore structure and the maximum monolayer water capacity achieved by the GAB model indicated that water in waterlogged archeological wooden artifacts was mainly free water in mesopores.
Specimens of the commercially important crab Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783) were collected monthly in Honghai Bay, P. R. China and examined for the presence of two barnacles: the Lepadomorpha Octolasmis bullata (Aurivillius, 1894) and the Rhizocephala Diplothylacus sinensis (Keppen, 1877). O. bullata was observed in the branchial chambers and prevalence of their infestation varied in the monthly collections. High prevalence occurred in the time from June to August and from October to February. The mean intensity of O. bullata was 23.33 ± 18.91 barnacles per infested host, showing higher intensity in larger crabs. The parasite D. sinensis was observed on host surfaces with externae or scars, and their prevalence was high in winter and low in summer. Crabs parasitized by D. sinensis showed a heavier fouling by O. bullata than the non-parasitized crabs. Larger crabs were more vulnerable to the infestation of O. bullata and the parasitism of D. sinensis. Thus, interaction of O. bullata and D. sinensis may cause synergistic effects on the host’s health. Due to the great economic importance of the crab, attention should be paid to this relationship.