This article analyzes the permeation from the dominant dialect, Mandarin, to the Shanghai urban dialect, based on the change of xiyin syllables having the Cong initial. Combining random sampling and anonymous observation methods we investigated variations in consecutive age groups of speakers. Statistical analyses reveal that the Shanghai urban dialect is moving toward Mandarin. Under the pressure of the dominant dialect the change is in progress at the population, pragmatic, and lexical levels. These changes are explained within the framework of current theories of language change.
This paper divides the expenditure of local government into the productive and nonproductive expenditure for revealing the effect of local government’s expenditure on output-capital efficiency through model and empirical analysis. In general, the elasticity of productive expenditure is more than that of nonproductive in a developing country. Therefore, the drawing effect of productive expenditure on economic growth is more than nonproductive one. However, the positive drawing effect of local government’s expenditure on the ratio of output to capital can be displayed only if the expenditure is within a reasonable scale. When the public expenditure has surpassed the limit, there will be a negative influence. Through our empirical analysis on current Chinese economic data, it shows that the positive drawing effect of local government productive expenditure on the ratio of output to capital is remarkable; however, the positive effect of expenditure on economic construction is critically small. In some areas, the government expenditure behavior has indirectly become the economic intervention and it reveals the negative effect and low efficiency in high speed of economic growth. It is imperative for Chinese government to improve the efficiency of economic growth by adjusting the expenditure structure of local government.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, both the Jews and the Chinese faced virulent racist prejudices in the United States. To prove their Americanness and win recognition, many Jews chose to side with mainstream Americans and support Chinese exclusion. But The Jewish Messenger, a New York-based Jewish newspaper, trod a different path. It confronted Chinese exclusion head-on, portraying it as a menace to American honor. In its view, support for the Chinese would equal defending the country that both Jewish and non-Jewish exclusionists claimed was under fatal threat from Chinese immigrants. In this way, the periodical illuminated a path that Jews could walk to prove their Americanness without sacrificing their sense of righteousness.
Recently, since the abnormal fluctuations in the domestic financial market starting in 2015, the pace of China’s financial opening up to the outside world has accelerated. In mid-July 2017, the Fifth National Financial Work Conference insisted on the expanded opening of the financial sector, and at the same time emphasized that the opening follow an appropriate sequence. We believe that “reasonably arranging the order of opening up” must revolve around the “three-in-one” themes of the work being done in finance: serving the real economy, preventing financial risks, and deepening the financial reforms. Moreover, that implementation should be carried out pro-actively and steadily.
The year of 2018 is a critical year for the construction of Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the completion of a moderately prosperous society. Governments at all levels emphasize the importance of keeping education as a priority strategy and improving the modernization of education. For 2018, the development and reform of China’s education has reached a new stage, and all levels of education have made great improvement regarding both the quality and the equality of education. When China steps into a new era of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, the reform of the education system will have a greater influence on an international scale.