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Author: Teddy Y.H. SIM
Since 2000, there have been fewer studies released about the ‘formal aspects’ of the operation of colonial powers, such as Portugal, in the East during the Early Modern period. Prior, the fall of Communism, in the last decade of the twentieth century, gave a boost to liberal ideology, while research into topics related to autocracy or state apparatus have become unfashionable. The Portuguese role in the East is usually overlooked, being less high-profile than that of the Dutch or British. Drawing on unpublished materials from the Overseas Historical Archive, and other libraries in Portugal, this book considers Portuguese leadership and organization at home, where it pertained to the governance of the eastern colonies; as well as the formal and ‘soft’ instruments of state applied on the ground in these colonies in first half of the eighteenth century.
Author: Teddy Y. H. Sim


This article examines Portuguese colonial and military activities at Macau during the Boxer Uprising of 1900, connecting developments across the border in Guangdong with initiatives undertaken by the colonial authorities in Macau. The Portuguese perceived the situation to be serious enough that substantial reinforcements were eventually sent from the metropole, in addition to various other measures taken to strengthen the colony’s defenses. Portugal also used Macau as a base to coordinate the operations of its consulates in China, and exploited the Boxer debacle to press for new concessions and other advantages at China’s expense. At the end, it is hoped that the limited and relatively unknown role played by Portugal, in conjunction with the larger kaleidoscope of events around Macau, may be better illuminated.

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In: Journal of Chinese Military History