Einheitliches ἀλέκτωρ + φωνέω für den Hahnenschrei im Neuen Testament?

Das Kompositum ἀλεκτοροφωνία in Mt 26:34 v.l. und 26:75 v.l.

Thomas J. Kraus

The four canonical gospels present the consistent sequence ἀλέκτωρ + φωνέω for the cock’s crow in Peter’s actual denial and its prediction by Jesus. The compound ἀλεκτοροφωνία in Mark 13:35 is the only alternative lexeme for the cock’s crow and, due to its single occurrence in the Greek Bible a hapax legomenon. In this study I follow up the variae lectiones in Matt 26:34 and 26:75, where the compound is backed by considerable and distinguished textual witnesses. By means of a validation of the attestation of these variae lectiones in the established critical editions of the New Testament it will be shown that their representation is often insufficient and incomplete. A speculative scenario will be created on the basis of the quality of the attestation of ἀλεκτοροφωνία in Matt 26:34 and 26:75 in order to make the compound plausible as the original reading. In addition, all this relativizes the importance and validity of the term hapax legomenon.

Thomas J. Kraus

Abstract

Among other differences between the Septuagint (LXX) and Masoretic (MT) version of Psalm cxx / cxxi, its verse 8a contains a peculiar phrasing (την εισoδóν σoυ καιτην εξoδóν σνυ, "your coming in and your going out"), as the MT has the two nouns in reverse order. In this article I will show that this feature is a unique phenomenon that found its way into the LXX here via a juridical background, where it had already become a fixed common term. A final chapter provides inscriptional evidence for the plain survival of this peculiar phrasing till today. It also makes aware of the fact that in such contexts Psalms obviously were regarded as being open to textual enlargements and changes.

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Original Manuscripts and Their Significance for Studying Early Christianity — Selected Essays

Series:

Thomas J Kraus

This selection of essays with autobiographical introduction aims to demonstrate the value of working with the original manuscripts in detail in order to gain a more profound understanding of the many facets of Early Christianity, in particular the texts and background of the New Testament.

This book should persuade other scholars to once again take a look at the original manuscripts, whether it be a textual witness to the New Testament, some apocryphal text, a reference to early Christian life, or even a specific socio-historical feature of the life of the common people in the days of early Christianity.

The specific selection of essays has been chosen with this purpose in mind, presenting editions of papyri and first-hand information, and showing how to base even complex constructs of ideas on a studious treatment of manuscripts. The essays demonstrate the value of studying manuscripts for lexicography, painting a picture of a socio-historical background, and showing how to assess and evaluate data methodologically.

Series:

Edited by Thomas J. Kraus and Tobias Nicklas

Series:

Edited by Thomas J. Kraus and Tobias Nicklas

Early Christian Manuscripts

Examples of Applied Method and Approach

Series:

Edited by Thomas J Kraus and Tobias Nicklas

For the reconstruction of early Christianity, the lives of early Christians, their world of ideas, their ways of living, and their literature. Early Christian manuscripts - documents and literary texts - are pivotal archaeological artefacts. However, the manuscripts often came to us in fragmentary conditions, incomplete or with gaps and missing lines. Others appear to form a corpus, belong to an archive, or are connected with each other as far as theme or purpose are concerned. The present collection comprises of nine essays about individual or a set of certain manuscripts. With their essays the authors aim to present special approaches to early Christian manuscripts and, consequently, demonstrate methodically how to deal with them. The scope of topics ranges from the reconstruction of fragmentary manuscripts to the significance of amulets and from the discussion of individual fragments to the handling of the known manuscripts of a specific Christian text or a whole archive of papyri.

New Testament Manuscripts

Their Texts and Their World

Edited by Thomas J Kraus and Tobias Nicklas

New Testament Manuscripts: Their Texts and Their World comprises twelve essays dealing with manuscripts of the New Testament and/or what we can learn from them today. Starting from different angles the contributors — distinguished scholars of international reputation — focus on the fascinating and thrilling stories manuscripts tell, for instance about the times they were produced in or the people who handled them.
The multitude of manuscripts used for establishing the critical text of the New Testament is often only perceived as abbreviations in form of single letters or numerals, and today’s biblical scholars may hardly ever take notice of the specific features of an original manuscript, above all those not mentioned in a critical edition. Therefore, three sets of contributions deals with the conditions under which manuscripts from the early days of Christianity were produced and transmitted, specific individual manuscripts, and then special features observed in and with the help of various manuscripts. In a final essay the usual method of how to organize and categorize New Testament manuscripts is challenged and an alternative method proposed.
The essays are linked with each other so that readers may get a feeling of how astounding an occupation with the original manuscripts of the New Testament and the days of the early Christians can be.