A review is provided of the morphological and behavioural observations known for the 190 recorded termitophilous and other termite-associated species of Phoridae (scuttle flies) known worldwide. A full list of these termite-associated phorids is provided, together with their recorded termite hosts, as an Appendix. The influence of batch size, egg size, developmental cycle, wing reduction and winglessness, egg-laying and morphological adaptations of a termite-associated lifestyle is discussed, based on differences observed among termite-associated phorids. A high number of termitophilous phorid species with batch sizes of four eggs or less are noted, probably reflecting the stable environment termitophilous phorids experience, and the high percentage of species with parasitoid or predatory larvae. Minimising the free-living larval stage by a reduction of the number of instars, by larval instar curtailment, or by endoparasitism is here hypothesised to be an advantageous life history strategy for many termite-associated phorids. Termite-associated phorids can be divided into four main types, according to their biology and morphology. The exploitive- and generalistic-types include both obligate and non-obligate termite associates that take advantage of the more vulnerable stages of the termites. The protective- and guest-types are obligate associates, spending full larval and pupal stages with their hosts. The guest-type is described as being socially integrated, communicating with the host and being involved in worker/nymph interactions.
The genera Agria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Angiometopa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, and Toxonagria Shewell, 1987 are diagnosed and their monophyly discussed. Diagnostic character states for the three genera in their present definitions are: Agria: Phallic tube with a pair of lateral sclerotizations slanting antero-ventrally from the apex; acrophallus strongly tapering. Angiometopa: Gonostylus with membranous lobe at base; phallic tube with a pair of armlike processes encompassing base of acrophallus. Toxonagria: Male hind femur thickened and curved; male cercus straight; acrophallus with broad, membranous phallotreme; male gonocoxal lobe with an extra subapical tooth or hook. The name Omocera Lioy, 1864 (an objective senior synonym of Angiometopa) is preoccupied by Omocera Chevrolat, 1835 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Angiometopa is proposed as a senior synonym of Sarcofahrtia Parker, 1916, syn.n. Agria hikosana (Kurahashi, 1975), comb.n., Agria shinonagai (Kurahashi, 1975), comb.n., and Agria mihalyii (Rohdendorf & Verves, 1978), comb.n. are transferred from their previous position in Angiometopa. Angiometopa bajkalensis Kolomyietz & Artamonov, 1981 is recorded from the Nearctic Region for the first time (Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon), and Toxonagria arnaudi sp.n. is described from Canada (British Columbia) and USA (California).
Metopia staegerii Rondani, 1859 has been revised and found to be a senior synonym of M. rondaniana Venturi, 1952 SYN. N. Metopia italian sp. n. is proposed for the species misidentified as M. staegerii by Venturi.
The type-materíal of Sarcophagidae described by the Scandinavian entomologists J.C. Fabricius, C.F. Fallén, and J.W. Zetterstedt is revised. All existing primary types have been examined, and lectotype designations have been made. A taxonomic synopsis listing a11 available names is provided.
The monophyly of Oebalia Robineau-Desvoidy is discussed. The presence of O. minuta (Fallén, 1810) in the Nearctic Region is confirmed by the first records of imagines, and Oebalia auraria sp. n. from Chile is described as the first Neotropical record. Diagnostic characters to separate the American species of Oebalia are given.
The New World genus Opsidia Coquillett is redefined and treated as a senior synonym of Opsidiotrophus Reinhard, syn. n. Opsidia metopioides Allen is considered a senior synonym of O. vittata Reinhard, syn. n., and three new Neotropical species are described: O. antillarum sp. n., O. jamaica sp. n., and O. oebalioides sp. n. A key and diagnostic illustrations for all species are provided.