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Author: Thomas Schmitt

Abstract

The debate about a new mosque in Manhattan to be located near Ground Zero echoed around the world in 2010. Since the end of the 1980s, plans for new mosques have been highly contested in the western world. The main aim here is a comparison of different mosque conflicts, with a focus on German examples. “No mosque in our town!” is, with its variants, a common slogan of local neighbors and citizen action groups in Germany when a new mosque is to be built. So it is only a minor exaggeration to state: “No new mosque in Germany without a local conflict.” Also, since the late 1980s, inconspicuous mosques in Germany have been increasingly replaced by buildings that combine traditional elements of Islamic architecture (minarets, domes) with modern western and postmodern forms. This analysis differentiates at least three aspects of these conflicts: (1) spatial aspects, e.g., questions of town planning, but also the relevance of the built environment for personal and collective identity, (2) interethnic and intercultural aspects, e.g., the relation between the establishment and outsiders, and (3) interreligious aspects, e.g., the mutual conceptualizations of Islam and Christianity or relations between Islamic organizations and a “secular” state. It also considers how these conflicts escalated through the interaction of both structural and accidental factors, in particular: anti-Islamic discourses, social polarizations, and an accumulated potential for interethnic conflict in residential areas with a high number of migrants.

In: Migration and Religion
In: Handbuch der Mediterranistik
In: Handbook of Moral Motivation

Abstract

Individual members of a population of 'prolonged' breeding amphibian species are asynchronously present at their breeding sites. Therefore, population size estimates can be misleading when based on commonly used closed or open-population capture-mark-recapture approaches. The superpopulation approach, a modified Jolly-Seber model, has been successfully applied in taxa other than amphibians with distinct migratory behaviour and where individuals are asynchronously present at the sampling site. In this paper, we suggest that the superpopulation approach is a useful population size estimator for 'prolonged' breeding amphibian species. Two case studies on European anurans show that superpopulation estimates are much higher than simple population counts. A simulation study showed that superpopulation estimates are unbiased but that accuracy can be low when either survival or detection probabilities (or both) are low. We recommend the superpopulation approach because it matches the natural history and phenology of amphibian species with prolonged breeding seasons.

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Aufklärung und Exil nach 1933
Die Ideen der Aufklärung nahmen unter den ab 1933 Vertriebenen eine Schlüsselfunktion ein. Sich emphatisch oder skeptisch gegenüber den Aufbrüchen des 18. Jahrhunderts zu positionieren half vielen bei der Selbsterhaltung oder Selbstprüfung. Deren kritischen Höhepunkt stellt die Dialektik der Aufklärung von Horkheimer und Adorno dar, wo die NS-Barbarei als logisches Resultat einer in ihr Gegenteil umschlagenden Aufklärung identifiziert wird.
Aus der Sicht von Philosophie, Soziologie, Judaistik, Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft geht der Band der Frage nach, wie sich die aus Deutschland Vertriebenen mit der Aufklärung auseinandersetzten und dabei (Selbst-)Aufklärung betrieben. Auch die Erfahrung eines spezifisch verlaufenen Aneignungsprozesses von ›Aufklärung‹ in den schutzbietenden Gastländern (v.a. Frankreich und den Vereinigten Staaten) zwang zur Auseinandersetzung mit dem historischen Erbe der Aufklärung. Sollte sie nicht zur Kampfparole verfallen, musste sie von den Emigranten mühevoll neu angeeignet werden.