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In: Wounds and Wound Repair in Medieval Culture
In: The Mongols' Middle East


Through the centuries, Afghanistan has gained a reputation of being rather inhospitable to conquering armies. Indeed, most powers that have attempted to subdue it have found it easy to conquer but difficult to control thus earning it the dubious epithet of “The Graveyard of Empires.” One empire that did successfully conquer the region and achieve long term success in Afghanistan was the Mongol Empire. That being said, Afghanistan is a long-neglected area of scholarship for the Mongol Empire. It should be noted, however, that Afghanistan as we know it did not exist during the Mongol era. While modern Afghanistan contains part of the region once known as Khurasan, I will be focusing on the territories Herat, the Murghab River, Gharjistan, Ghazni, Kabul, Ghur and the Helmand River basin or Central and western Afghanistan. This paper will survey Ilkhanid activities in the region and attempt some initial conclusions based on the location of the activities as well as who was involved. A brief overview of events prior to the Ilkhanid period is also necessary. In this work, I also investigate the Qara’una and Negüderis in order to understand not only their origins and identity, but also to determine if they should be considered separate entities.

In: New Approaches to Ilkhanid History
In: Wounds and Wound Repair in Medieval Culture
in Encyclopaedia of Islam Three Online
In: Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon