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  • Author or Editor: Tomoko TANAKA x
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Previous studies suggested that long-term Chinese residents living in Japan, instead of identifying as Japanese or Chinese, may have a “superordinate orientation” not characterized by nationality. This study developed a scale to measure cultural awareness of border crossers and evaluated its reliability and validity. To confirm the scale’s reliability, we conducted two online surveys of adult Chinese who had lived in Japan for at least three years at the time of the survey. A 45-item scale was created based on the interview results. The same items were used in both surveys. An exploratory factor analysis (maximum likelihood method, promax rotation) was performed on the valid responses to the first survey. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the valid responses to the second survey. The results showed that the Cultural Awareness Scale for Border Crossers has acceptable reliability and validity.

Open Access
In: Journal of Social Innovation and Knowledge
In: Proceedings of the 49th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology