The participation of traditional minority autonomies is seldom discussed in relation to territorial management in Europe. Yet, several traditional minorities and indigenous people enjoying autonomous powers participate in regional co-operation efforts. This article discusses the involvement of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands in the development and co-operation of macro-regions. Regional co-operation has long been a corner stone of Europe’s integration project, and macro-regions is the latest concept in the effort to strengthen regions economically in the wake of the onset of globalisation and indeed global economic crises. In contradistinction to the perceived notion of traditional minorities as conflict prone troublemakers, it is argued that in the effort to maintain the peace and overcome persistent challenges common to both majorities and minorities, traditional minorities are increasingly pro-active and working for the survival of their autonomous regions. This is manifested, among other, in the manner in which they participate – albeit unevenly – in regional co-operation aimed at economic development and integration.
Non-territorial arrangements (NTA) are overlooked both as conflict prevention tools and as a minority participation concept. As a conflict prevention tool, governments are provided with limited NTA options for consideration. This means that the aim of NTA as a means to de-territorialize minority politics is overlooked. As a concept, the academic literature provides a narrow scope of NTA, thus limiting the reach of the concept. This is problematic because a progressive conceptualization of NTA could not only broaden the scope of participation but also the scope of protection of minorities. The infrequent use of NTA as a minority accommodation model in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) member states over the first ten years of the Lund Recommendations underpins these arguments. This article provides an overview of NTA codification in the OSCE member states after 1999 as a backdrop to a short discussion of the shortcomings in the Lund Recommendations in regard to NT A. In addition to providing some suggestions as to how a progressive view of NTA would look, the article also offers three recommendations to the High Commissioner· on National Minorities office as to an improved application of the Lund Recommendations in the area of NTA.