Ecologically versatile Anolis schwartzi from St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles) occurs in various habitats, usually in shaded situations and often in higher densities when associated with rock piles, rock slides, and stone walls. In order to evaluate the mating systems of A. schwartzi in different habitats, we examined populations in rocky and adjacent forested plots in Boven National Park to test the following predictions: (1) Population densities would be higher in habitats with rocks or rock slides than in nearby areas of forest without rocks. (2) Males would be larger in favoured habitats with higher population densities. (3) Behaviours related to territoriality and aggression would be more prevalent in habitats with higher population densities. In fact, population densities were higher in rock plots, males and females were larger in rock plots, and males engaged in territorial/aggressive behaviours (push-ups, movements, presumably necessary for surveying territories, and chases) more frequently in rock plots. Large male A. schwartzi in rock plots with high population densities apparently exclude small males (social exclusion hypothesis). Average female:male densities in forest plots approached 1:1, which is suggestive of monogamy, whereas that in rock plots was 0.72. Consequently, the mating systems of A. schwartzi appear to vary in a predictable manner along the spectrum of monogamy to polygyny between proximate habitats between which no genetic isolation is possible.
This book forum focuses on Wim Klooster’s The Dutch Moment: War, Trade, and Settlement in the Seventeenth-Century Atlantic World (Cornell University Press, 2016). In his book, Wim Klooster shows how the Dutch built and eventually lost an Atlantic empire that stretched from the homeland in the United Provinces to the Hudson River and from Brazil and the Caribbean to the African Gold Coast. The fleets and armies that fought for the Dutch in the decades-long war against Spain included numerous foreigners, largely drawn from countries in northwestern Europe. Likewise, many settlers of Dutch colonies were born in other parts of Europe or the New World. According to Klooster, the Dutch would not have been able to achieve military victories without the native alliances they carefully cultivated. Indeed, Klooster concludes, the Dutch Atlantic was quintessentially interimperial, multinational, and multiracial. At the same time, it was an empire entirely designed to benefit the United Provinces.
The four reviewers – Trevor Burnard, Joyce Goodfriend, Cynthia Van Zandt, and Willem Frijhoff – all offer praise, some more profusely than others. Their reviews critically question some aspects of Klooster’s narrative, particularly in relation to slavery, the inevitability of the Dutch Atlantic empire’s decline, his assessment of the rule of Johan-Maurits van Nassau-Siegen in Dutch Brazil, the role of violence and of women in Dutch colonization, as well as the relationship between microcosmic and macrocosmic perspectives on the history of Dutch America.