Generic diagnosis to the male imago of the new genus Friederia is given. Friederia villosa sp. n. from the rain forest of Western Ghana is described as male imago. Parsimony analyses of the subtribe Zavreliina of the tribe Tanytarsini of the subfamily Chironominae show that Friederia forms the sister genus of the unambiguously monophyletic Stempellinella Brundin with Zavrelia Kieffer as the sister group of the two combined, Neostempellina Reiss as the sister group of all three, and otherwise confirm previous phylogenetic analyses.
Four Middle Eocene orthoclad species, Heterotrissocladius naibuchi sp. n., Paraphaenocladius nadezhdae sp. n., Pseudosmittia kodrulae sp. n. and Smittia sukachevae sp. n.. are described and figured. Based on the combination of the diptera fauna composition and paleobotanical data, suggestions on the climate and habitats of the Sakhalin amber forest are given.
Light-trap samples of the Peppered Moth Biston betularia (L.) from the region of Bergen, western Norway, show that about 85-95 % of the individuals are non-melanic (typica) and of the melanics, the form insularia predominates over carbonaria which was found in six samples but in low frequencies (2-5 %) except in one locality (9 %). The darkest individuals, classified as carbonaria, have some white speckling on the forewings like the ancient carbonaria in Great Britain a hundred years ago. There was no clear pattern regarding the geographic distribution of melanism; the frequency of insularia possibly being higher in coastal and more oceanic localities. There is no clear evidence of industrial melanism although the highest frequency of carbonaria was found near the source of a local industrial pollution.